Blood types and COVID-19
Researchers compared Danish health registry data from more than 473,000 individuals tested for COVID-19 to data from a control group of more than 2.2 million people from the general population. Among the COVID-19 positive, they found fewer people with blood type O and more people with A, B, and AB types.
The study results suggest that people with blood types A, B, or AB may be more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than people with type O.
- A greater proportion of blood group A or AB patients required mechanical ventilation and CRRT compared with blood group O or B patients.
- Biomarkers of renal and hepatic dysfunction were higher in blood group A or AB patients. In our subcohort, there were no differences in serum inflammatory cytokines.
- The data indicates that critically ill COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB are associated with an increased risk for requiring mechanical ventilation, CRRT, and prolonged ICU length of stay compared with patients with blood groups O or B.
Antibodies are in plasma blood Type
- Your blood type is a way to categorize your blood according to what’s in it: antigens, including the Rhesus, or Rh, factor.
- Antigens are a type of protein on red blood cells. Based on the type of antigen, your blood will be categorized as Type A, Type B, Type AB, or Type O.
- When antigens come into contact with substances that are unfamiliar to your body, such as certain bacteria, they trigger a response from your immune system. The same type of response can occur during a blood transfusion if your donor’s blood type doesn’t match with yours. In that case, your blood cells could clump and cause potentially fatal complications.
- The Rh factor is also a substance on the red blood cells. This is where the + and – signs next to your blood type come into play. If you have the Rh factor, you are considered Rh positive (+), and if you don’t, you’re considered Rh negative (-).
- The rhesus protein is named for the rhesus monkey, which also carries the gene, and is a protein that lives on the surface of the red blood cells. This protein is also often called the D antigen. When it comes to blood transfusion, anyone who is Rh positive can receive blood from someone who is Rh negative, but those with negative blood types cannot receive from anyone with a positive blood type.
- Important especially during pregnancy. This is because the mother’s and baby’s Rh status need to match, or the mother’s immune system may react as if it’s allergic to the baby. Severe cases of mismatched Rh status can lead to diseases such as anemia or brain damage in the baby. In the most severe cases, it can even be fatal.
- Group A: This blood group has A antigens and B antibodies.
- Group B: This blood group has B antigens and A antibodies.
- Group AB: This blood group has A and B antigens and no antibodies.
- Group O: This group doesn’t have either A or B antigens, but it has both A and B antibodies.
Crossmatching is a way for your healthcare provider to test your blood against a donor’s blood to make sure they are fully compatible. It’s essentially a trial transfusion done in test tubes to see exactly how your blood will react with potential donor blood.