Scientists have a new understanding of how skin repairs itself.
Epigenetic regulation of cell and tissue function requires the coordinated action of transcription factors. In normal conditions, one in every fourth cell isolated from the inner layer of the skin divides but the team in the University of Manchester achieved an increase by 20-25%.
Two transcription factors—proteins that bind the DNA—were able to enhance a natural process of skin cell division, a desirable outcome in regenerative medicine.
What is Transcription factor?
Transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. The function of TFs is to regulate—turn on and off—genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism.
What are Growth Factors?
Growth factors are natural substances made by the skin cells that support the repair of damaged skin, as a result of aging or environmental factors. They promote the formation of collagen and elastin to provide firmness and elasticity.
Growth factor proteins are naturally secreted by cells and interact directly or are hidden away by the surrounding extracellular matrix for presentation to cell surface receptors. Events such as cell migration, survival, adhesion, proliferation, growth, and differentiation are triggered by the binding of the specific growth factor receptor, which stimulates cell signal transduction pathways. These growth factor-stimulated cellular responses in greater proportions are involved in organ development, angiogenesis, and wound healing.
The effect of skin repair was achieved without the addition of growth factors in this study. Instead of growth factors, scientists used sulforaphane, a compound found in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbages.
Sulforaphane activates the binding of transcription factors to specific parts of the DNA, which controls cell division and is one of a number of compounds that can work in this way.
While most of the research was done on human cells isolated directly from donor skin, mouse models with genetically modified transcription factors were essential to prove the DNA-mediated mechanism.
“We know that the skin sometimes cannot efficiently repair itself but the endogenous mechanism we discovered uses the body’s own processes to induce division of cells in the skin,” – Dr. Svitlana Kurinna, who led the study.
Our skin can be easily damaged, which impacts the quality of life and in some cases, is life-threatening. The scientist’s goal was to provide insight into the process and lay the foundation for the future of finding similar mechanisms in other organs.
One of the identified transcription factors is the master regulator of the DNA in skin cells while the other alleviates oxidative stress. Such stress is a result of reactive oxygen species from the environment, toxins, and the inner metabolic processes.
Possible in the future, the transcription factors may protect and improve cell division without transforming them into cancer cells. At the moment, once tissue becomes fibrotic and scarred, there’s no way of reversing it to a fully functional state. The goal will be to improve the regeneration of functional skin and potentially in other organs with similar endogenous mechanisms.
Life is just perception, are we in a simulation?
The most memorable things about The Matrix are, without a doubt, the questions it asks about the true nature of reality. What if all we experience in life is simply a simulation?
“If we are living in a simulation, then the cosmos that we are observing is just a tiny piece of the totality of physical existence… While the world we see is in some sense ‘real,’ it is not located at the fundamental level of reality.” — Nick Bostrom
Could consciousness come down to the way things vibrate?
Why is my awareness here, while yours is over there? Why is the universe split in two for each of us, into a subject and an infinity of objects? How is each of us our own center of the experience, receiving information about the rest of the world out there? Why are some things conscious and others apparently not? Is a bird conscious?
Synchronized vibration may connect us all? All things in our universe are constantly in motion, vibrating. Even objects that appear to be stationary are in fact vibrating, oscillating, resonating, at various frequencies. Ultimately all matter is just vibrations of various underlying fields. As such, at every scale, all of nature vibrates.
Something interesting happens when different vibrating things come together: They will often start, after a little while, to vibrate together at the same frequency. They “sync up,” sometimes in ways that can seem mysterious. This is described as the phenomenon of spontaneous self-organization.
– When fireflies of certain species come together in large gatherings, they start flashing in sync, in ways that can still seem a little mystifying.
– Lasers are produced when photons of the same power and frequency sync up.
– The moon’s rotation is exactly synced with its orbit around the Earth such that we always see the same face.
Gamma waves are associated with large-scale coordinated activities like perception, meditation or focused consciousness; beta with maximum brain activity or arousal; and theta with relaxation or daydreaming.
These three wave types work together to produce, or at least facilitate, various types of human consciousness? But the exact relationship between electrical brain waves and consciousness is still very much up for debate.
What if the feeling is a conscious awareness of vibration and the vibration you’re in dictates what you’re going to attract in life.