How you take care of your skin plays a role in your self-esteem. When you have beautiful skin, you also have self-confidence. Unfortunately, some of us don’t know how to care for our skin. As a result, some of us suffer from acne, blackheads, dryness of the skin, skin lesions, and other skin conditions.
But how do you take care of your skin correctly anyway? Is showering enough? What about a skincare routine? Is there a specific way to achieve great skin?
If you suffer from bad skin, this episode is for you. In this episode, we would like to introduce you to Laura Coral. Laura is a dermatology physician assistant working at Curology and branching off to YouTube and social media to share her experience being a PA and encourage future healthcare providers to go after their dreams!
We will discuss the best skin care routines and how to decrease acne and wrinkles.
QUESTIONS FOR GUESTS
The questions below are some we’d like to tackle. We go off-topic, so we don’t expect to hit them all. If you have any ideas, please let us know. Looking forward to our conversation!
Laura can you give us a little background about yourself and how you got started in dermatology?
Did you go straight into PA school, or did you start off somewhere else in the healthcare field?
Have you always worked in dermatology?
How did you get started in Curology?
Why do you like the company, and how do they personalized skincare?
What are the most common skin issues you see and common ways to treat them? Dry skin, acne, pigmentation issues, etc.
What are some common skin myths or misconceptions?
Common questions your clients ask?
What ages the skin and causes wrinkles?
Are there some universal products out there that can help with aging?
Do you have a skincare routine?
What skin products can you not live without?
What are some universal products that you think everyone should use?
Psychosomatic manifestations are something we’ve been curious about. It shows how powerful our mind is and the destruction we can cause to ourselves. Have you had any experience with psychosomatic disorders?
A big culprit of this is unaddressed conflicts that linger on for years. How can people get over this?
Psychosomatic disorder is a psychological condition involving the occurrence of physical symptoms, usually lacking a medical explanation. People with this condition may have excessive thoughts, feelings, or concerns about the symptoms.
Before we end the show, we have one last question we like to ask all our guests. If you had the opportunity to have a Cup of coffee with anybody one last time, who would it be & why?
Do you want to have healthy skin? Learn helpful tips by watching this full episode 👇
00:00 Introduction 01:48 About the guest 04:01 How did you get started in Curology? 05:35 Difference between face and body skin 06:42 What products to avoid 09:06 Basic skincare routine 11:20 Difference between serums, creams, and lotions 14:19 The skincare routine for you 17:05 Does applying sunscreen necessary? 21:58 Wrinkles and retinol 24:20 What causes acne? 31:44 Skincare and makeup 34:03 Laura’s skincare routine 36:10 What is a dark spot? 38:36 Scar treatments 42:19 Psychosomatic disorder 47:26 Talking about insecurities 50:02 Managing Stress 51:10 Can eyebags be treated 52:59 Wrapping up the episode
Understanding diabetes is a long-lasting health condition that affects how the body turns food into energy. The food you eat is broken down into sugar and turns into glucose. It is then released into the bloodstream.s the key to letting the blood sugar into the body’s cells. It is then used as energy.
Having diabetes means your body does not make enough insulin. It cannot use insulin well either. Too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream when insulin isn’t enough or if the cells stop responding to it. It could lead to serious health problems like loss of vision, h
What is Diabetes?
When the blood sugar goes up, the pancreas is signaled to release insulin. It then leads to heart disease and even kidney problems.
Understanding Diabetes is Important
In this episode, we welcome our guest, Kimberly Ellis. She is a Family Nurse Practitioner specializing in diabetes education and management, chronic disease prevention & management. She is also an expert in patient and provider engagement and culturally responsive care in marginalized communities.
Kim has a decade of experience and knowledge in Primary Care, Long Term Care, Medically Assisted Weight Loss Clinics, and Community Health.
Her consulting firm, Ellis Diabetes Education & Consulting, LLC., assists health organizations in developing Clinical Initiatives, Strategies, and Implementation aligned with the Quadruple Aim of Healthcare to improve health outcomes in their unique demographic.
QUESTIONS FOR GUESTS
The questions below are some we’d like to tackle. We go off-topic all the time so we don’t expect to hit them all. If you have any ideas please let us know. Looking forward to our conversation!
Can you give us a little background about yourself?
What got you into nursing?
Is there a reason why you pursued the nurse practitioner route?
What made you specialize in Diabetes education?
With diabetes and even nondiabetics, we pay attention to the Hgb A1c.
What is it?
How do we use it to predict diabetes?
How is diabetes developed over time?
What is prediabetes?
“According to the CDC, more than one-third of American adults are categorized as “pre-diabetic.” That’s 88 million people! The sad part about it is that a large number of people do not even know that they have prediabetes.” 
We love talking about prevention.
Illnesses affect everyone individually and the only way to prevent them is for the individual to do something about it. No one can help you better than you can help yourself, good health is our own responsibility.
Key risk factors
Age 45 or older
How does being overweight lead to diabetes? Can we touch base on the physiological process of how obesity leads to diabetes?
How does insulin resistance fit into this picture?
Obesity causes stress in a system of cellular membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn causes the endoplasmic reticulum to suppress the signals of insulin receptors, which then leads to insulin resistance.
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes found inside cells. It is responsible for processing proteins and fats.
As you enter a state of overnutrition, as we often do living in our supersized society, all of those nutrients that come in need to be processed, stored and utilized and the ER factory is overworked and starts sending out SOS signals.
These SOS signals, he said, tell cells to dampen their insulin receptors. Insulin is the hormone that converts blood sugar to energy for the body’s cells.
When there’s too much going on, the cell knows that insulin is out there, but doesn’t want insulin receptors signaling for more insulin because there’s already enough on board. This has a downside because insulin soon loses its ability to help clear sugar from the body .
A sedentary lifestyle (physical activity <3x/wk)
Questions About Diabetes
How does a sedentary lifestyle contribute to diabetes/prediabetes?
Is it because it leads to obesity or is there a different underlying reason?
A low amount of activity leads to more circulating glucose and metabolism change. Activity leads to an increasing amount of work on our muscles and body leading to a higher demand for nutrition, our body uses up and needs the circulating glucose .
First-degree relative with Diabetes Type 2
A personal history of gestational diabetes
When someone develops gestational diabetes does that just show that the person is more likely to develop diabetes based on a genetic predisposition?
A personal history of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
How does PCOS play a role in a higher likelihood of diabetes?
Is it directly related to PCOS causing insulin resistance?
Racial Group: African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Pacific Islanders
Is diabetes reversible?
What are the keys to proper diabetes management and something everyone should know?
Before we end the show we have one last question we like to ask all our guests. If you had the opportunity to have a Cup of coffee with anybody one last time, who would it be & why?
Want to learn more about diabetes? Click on our full episode here 👇
00:00 Intro 02:03 About Kimberley 04:00 Common Problems In Communities 08:18 What Made Kimberly Specialize In Diabetes Education? 10:17 The Difficulty In Educating People About Diabetes 12:44 The Physiology Of Diabetes 16:14 Does Glucometer Really Help Detect Diabetes? 18:33 Why Is It Crucial To Prevent Diabetes? 20:28 When Is The Ideal Time To Check Your Blood Sugar? 23:01 What Should A Person With Prediabetes Do? 26:23 Is Diabetes Reversible? 30:10 Frequent Misdiagnosis of Diabetes 32:51 Ethnic Groups And Cultures Susceptible To Diabetes 34:47 About Gestational Diabetes? 38:09 Diets To Help You Avoid Diabetes 42:34 Improving Eating Pattern 44:23 Kimberly’s Role As A Healthcare Provider 47:11 How Can We Raise Awareness About Diabetes? 48:55 What healthcare professionals are lacking? 54:06 Wrapping up the episode
It’s incredible how time flies; just like that, we are on our 100th episode before we even know it! We wouldn’t be able to do all of these without your support for Cup of Nurses. We owe it to our followers and supporters to let you guys know that our channel will make some changes. As we move along, we will tackle topics we are more passionate about.
We are excited to announce that we will be transitioning to Frontline Warriors as we want to focus more on health, consciousness, and wellness. Today’s episode will also be the last one for Cup of News. We’ve enjoyed our time doing this show, but like the changing season, we also embrace the changes. And we are pumped to have you guys join us in this new chapter for Cup of Nurses! So, stay tuned and be on the lookout for our new episodes. We can’t wait to share them and help inspire you to become the best version of yourselves!
Why We Started Cup of News
We started the Cup of News for one specific reason: to keep up with the C-19 surge and keep everyone informed about what is going on during the pandemic. We believe we kept our part. Covid-19 is still a thing. However, it has become more of the norm, and breaking news is not as “breaking” as it used to be.
Our Favorite Episode Topics
Over the last few years, we’ve covered several good topics in Cup of News. Today, we will talk about some of our favorites and why we enjoyed talking about them here in Cup of Nurses. Here are a few:
We really liked doing this one. Even though we don’t fully believe in horoscopes we still find them entertaining. They do hold some benefit because it allows you to think about yourself and your actions in a way you may not have before. It also offers a focus for you for the month or year to help you grow.
Family matters will be of importance this month. You will face a lot of challenges with your career, but towards the end of the month, you will make things better. Your health might take a toll on you if you are not careful.
Trust that you are ready to meet your soulmate this month. You have been waiting for a while now, and the time has come for you to get out there. Your social life will be perfect.
You will be okay financially. Your career will improve, and you will get that promotion that you have been waiting for. Taurus love life will have some challenges because you do not see eye to eye with your partner.
Your health will be perfect while your travel prospects are also bright. You will have to work harder when it comes to your studies to achieve all your goals and aspirations.
To have a happy and fulfilled life, married couples should ensure that they stay away from conflict. Do not always pick a fight with your spouse. Fighting in the family can cause the children to feel unloved. Always strive to be a positive example to your children.
You will finally get that leadership position that you have been working for at your workplace. Your superiors will appreciate your leadership skills and your ability to mobilize your fellow coworkers.
Cancer natives will have a positive month. All aspects of your life will be on the right track. As long as you keep doing the great things you are doing, all will be well with you. Do not listen to people who tell you that you are worth nothing.
Keep being you and live your best life. Focus on the things that bring light and positive vibes into your life.
Family life will cause you lots of problems that might affect your mental health. It will be a prosperous period for Leo natives who are in business. Finances will not be a problem for you this month.
Children will do well in their studies, and you will be extremely proud of them. You will also travel a lot with your loved ones.
Health will pose no problems for you this month. Your career prospects are, however, not encouraging. You need to change the approach by which you handle your professional life.
Single Virgo natives should be careful to protect their hearts from hurt. Exercise due diligence before choosing to fall in love with anyone.
Be true to yourself and live an honest life. Also, be careful with your finances. Misuse of funds will cause you to regret it in the near future. Ensure that you develop a good habit of saving for rainy days.
All your travel commitments will bring in great profits. You will also be able to meet new people who will help you grow your business.
You should be serious about your marriage. Show commitment to your spouse, and you will enjoy lasting happiness and joy. Also, show commitment to your children and your availability in their lives.
Your love life will be exceptional this month. You will be able to find someone that fills your heart. As a Scorpio woman, you need to be careful with your reproductive health.
Business people will have great financial flow. Invest in businesses that will assure you of great profits. Pursue your passions and work towards achieving happiness in all you do.
Your education will head to the next level as you will get a scholarship to study abroad and broaden your area of study.
Trust those great things will manifest in your life. Do not take anything for granted. You should also be patient with yourself. In your career, take one step at a time, and you will eventually get there. Also, make good use of your talents and gifts.
Be well-equipped to handle your children when they start misbehaving. Ensure that you bring them back on the right track.
Your health will be okay this month, but you need to make some lifestyle changes. You will face some challenges with your studies because of school fees arrears.
Business people will profit greatly from their businesses.
Your marriage life will be exciting and filled with passion and romance. Always appreciate your partner and remind them how much you love them.
This month you will safely invest knowing that you are doing the right thing. Nothing should scare you from living your best life.
EP 86: Cannabis and C-19
As nurses, we enjoy learning and here at Cup of Nurses, we are happy to share what we have researched. Our goal is to spread information about health and how people can utilize this information so they can live a long and healthy life.
A study conducted by JCI Insight in 2017 found that CBD lowered the blood pressure of human participants. It reduced their resting blood pressure as well as their blood pressure after stress tests including mental arithmetic, isometric exercise, and the cold pressor test.
CBD has been proven to help reduce inflammation and the neuropathic pain it can cause, according to a study by the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research.
Preventing relapse in drug and alcohol addiction
A 2018 study discovered that CBD can be useful in helping people who suffer from drug and alcohol addiction. A preclinical trial with lab rats determined that CBD reduced the stress-induced cravings, anxiety, and lack of impulse control that often cause people to relapse.
Treating anxiety disorders
Anxiety is perhaps the most common affliction that people have used CBD for, and a preclinical study found that CBD could be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Treating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders
A recent study found that CBD and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids can effectively be used to prevent and treat GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, and more. CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties are key to reducing and preventing symptoms.
Decades of research have gone into using CBD to treat epilepsy and other seizure syndromes, and a recent study showed it can have positive effects in reducing symptoms and seizure frequency.
Not only has CBD been used to help alleviate the effects of chemotherapy, but studies have also found it can prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines and it has numerous anti-cancer effects that can help prevent a variety of cancers, treat tumors, and benefit the immune system.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men, women, and people of most racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
There are about 3 million deaths in the US
Cardiovascular disease alone accounts for almost 1/4th of the total deaths in the US.
One person dies every 36 seconds in the United States from cardiovascular disease.
Heart disease costs the United States about $363 billion each year from 2016 to 2017. This includes the cost of health care services, medicines, and lost productivity due to death.
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing 360,900 people in 2019.
About 18.2 million adults age 20 and older have CAD (about 6.7%).
About 2 in 10 deaths from CAD happen in adults less than 65 years old.
In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 40 seconds.
Every year, about 805,000 people in the United States have a heart attack. Of these,
605,000 are a first heart attack
200,000 happen to people who have already had a heart attack
About 1 in 5 heart attacks are silent—the damage is done, but the person is not aware of it.
According to heart.org, almost half of the US population has some type of cardiovascular disease.
According to 2017 figures, 116.4 million people had hypertension, almost half of the US population at that time, and that is just hypertension alone.
Cardiovascular disease is such an issue that the AHA had to lower its guidelines for what hypertension is from 140/90 to 130/80 so that people can get treated sooner.
1 in 5 Americans reported having adequate aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activity to meet the physical activity guidelines.
Estimates for 2035 are showing that more than 130 million people will have some form of cardiovascular disease and the total cost to the healthcare system would be $1.1 trillion.
EP 52: World Economic Forum Plus Political News
At Cup of Nurses, we don’t only tackle issues related to health but everything that is happening around us. In this episode, we gathered all information we could about what is going on around the world in terms of economy and politics. These are our 2030 Predictions for the world and general economy.
Products will become a service
There are people that do not own a car, don’t own a house, don’t own appliances or clothes, they don’t own anything.
Global price on carbon
China took the lead in 2017 with a market for trading the right to emit a tonne of CO2, setting the world on a path towards a single carbon price and a powerful incentive to ditch fossil fuels, predicts Jane Burston, Head of Climate and Environment at the UK’s National Physical Laboratory. Europe, meanwhile, found itself at the center of the trade-in of cheap, efficient solar panels, as prices for renewables fell sharply.
Drop-in US dominance into a handful of powers
Instead of a single force, a handful of countries – the U.S., Russia, China, Germany, India, and Japan chief among them – show semi-imperial tendencies. However, at the same time, the role of the state is threatened by trends including the rise of cities and the spread of online identities.
Less hospital care
The hospital as we know it will be changed, with fewer accidents due to self-driving cars and an increase in preventive and personalized medicine. Open organ surgeries and organ donors are out, and tiny robotic tubes and bio-printed organs are going to be developed.
Rather like our grandparents, the meat will be a treat rather than a staple, writes Tim Benton, Professor of Population Ecology at the University of Leeds, UK. It won’t be big agriculture or little artisan producers that win, but rather a combination of the two, with convenience food redesigned to be healthier and less harmful to the environment.
Refugees will be CEOs and share the future
Highly educated Syrian refugees will be old enough to have an impact on the community by 2030, making the case for the economic integration of those who have been forced to flee the conflict. The world needs to be better prepared for populations on the move, writes Lorna Solis, Founder, and CEO of the NGO Blue Rose Compass, as climate change will have displaced 1 billion people.
Western values will be tested
We forget the checks and balances that bolster our democracies at our peril, writes Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch.
Moving closer to Mars
What’s more, once we get there, we’ll probably discover evidence of alien life, writes Ellen Stofan, Chief Scientist at NASA. Big science will help us to answer big questions about life on earth, as well as open up practical applications for space technology.
To find out more about the changes we’re doing for Cup of Nurses, check out the full video here 👇
00:00 Intro 00:45 Plugs 03:28 Reminiscing how it all started 06:28 How we stood up for what we believe 10:34 A podcast that will help everyone 12:32 We are our only cure 19:09 Favorite Episodes: The Challenge 21:42 Favorite Episodes: Out in Nature 22:25 Favorite Episodes: Horoscope 25:47 Favorite Episodes: Cannabis and C-19 31:10 Favorite Episodes: Heart Heath #1 Killer in America 34:59 Favorite Episodes: What is The World Economic Forum? 37:22 Wrapping up the show
Are you Eating Cancer-Causing Glyphosate in Your Diet?
There is cancer-causing glyphosate in your diet. You might not know how harmful it is until it is too late. What is it anyway? And how can it affect our body? Read on for more.
What is Glyphosate?
A Swiss chemist working for a pharmaceutical company, Dr. Henri Martin, discovered glyphosate in 1950. Since no pharmaceutical applications were identified the molecule was sold to a series of other companies. and samples were tested for several possible ends uses.
Glyphosate is an herbicide. It is applied to the leaves of plants to kill both broadleaf plants and grasses. The sodium salt form of glyphosate regulates plant growth and ripens specific crops.
This chemical became registered for use in the U.S. in 1974. It is now one of the most used herbicides in the United States. People apply it in agriculture and forestry, lawns and gardens, and weeds in industrial areas.
How does glyphosate work?
Cancer-causing Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide, meaning it will kill most plants. It works by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme. The shikimic acid pathway plays a role in synthesizing three amino acids. These are phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.
“Glyphosate has a 40-year history of safe and effective use. The overwhelming conclusion of experts worldwide … is that glyphosate is safe to use,” Monsanto said. He was ignorant of evidence building against the chemical.
the roundup-related lawsuits have dogged Bayer since it acquired the top-selling brand. It is as part of its $63 billion sales of agricultural seeds and pesticides maker Monsanto in 2018.
The company has spent billions of dollars to settle around 96,000 Roundup cases of about 125,000.
What do regulatory agencies in the USA say?
In 2015, a committee of scientists working for the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the WHO evaluated studies and reported that glyphosate is probably carcinogenic.
The latest from the Environmental Working Group (EWG), Food Democracy Now. The Detox Project tested various products for glyphosate. They found dangerous levels of glyphosate in everyday American foods.
Glyphosate Products to Avoid
Granola by Quaker, KIND, Back to Nature, Nature Valley
Instant oats by Giant, Quaker, Umpqua, Market Pantry
Whole oats by Quaker, Bob’s Red Mill, Nature’s Path, Whole Foods
Cereal by Kashi, Kellogg’s, including Lucky Charms and Cheerios
Snack bars by Quaker, KIND, Nature Valley, Kellogg’s
Orange juice by Tropicana, Minute Maid, Signature Farms, Kirkland
Crackers, including Cheez-Its, Ritz, Triscuits, Goldfish
Cookies by Annie’s, Kashi, and Nabisco (Oreos)
Chips by Stacy’s, Lay’s, Doritos, Fritos
An alarming study looked into Pesticides in Mississippi compared to air and rain between 1995 and 2007. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in ≥75% of air and rain samples in 2007 .
How do you avoid glyphosate exposure?
The best way to avoid eating cancer-causing glyphosate is to grow your own plants, vegetables, and fruits. If you don’t have time, source local produce from a farmer’s market you trust.
The Detox Project uses an FDA-registered food testing lab to test for toxic chemicals. Thye recently launched a “Glyphosate Residue Free” label. This way companies can apply to certify their products. Until it rolls out more, you are more likely (but not guaranteed) to avoid exposure by opting for foods labeled “Certified Organic.”
The extent of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed research articles from 10 leading nutrition-related journals in 2018
We all know that evidence supports the food industry’s involvement in nutrition research or agendas. However, food industry involvement in nutrition research has not been systematically explored.
This study, published on December 16th, 2020, aimed to identify the extent of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed articles. It includes leading nutrition-related journals that are examined thoroughly. The goal is to find food industries that support the industry’s interests.
No study has comprehensively examined the extent and nature of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed research.
The study reviewed the top 10 most cited nutrition and dietetics-related journals. The evaluation of food industry involvement was evaluated based on author affiliations, funding sources, declarations of interest, or other acknowledgments.
Principal research findings from articles with food industry involvement, and a random sample of articles without food industry involvement, were categorized according to the extent to which they supported relevant food industry interests.
Of 1,461, 196 (13.4%) articles reported food industry involvement. The extent of food industry involvement varied by journal, with The Journal of Nutrition (28.3%) having the highest and Pediatric Obesity (3.8%) having the lowest proportion of industry involvement.
Food industry involvement spanned several industry sectors, with processed food manufacturing, dietary supplement manufacturing, and dairy most often represented.
Processed food manufacturers were involved in most articles (77/196, 39.3%). Of articles with food industry involvement, 55.6% reported findings favorable to relevant food industry interests, compared to 9.7% of articles without food industry involvement.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
International Journal of Obesity
Nutrition Research Reviews
Journal of Obesity
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
The Journal of Nutrition.
Future studies should investigate nutrition-related articles from journals with both nutrition and non-nutrition focus (including, for example, journals in medicine and public health)
Get to know more about glyphosate by watching our full episode here 👇
00:00 Intro 00:41 Plugs 02:44 Episode Introduction 04:28 About Glyphosate 05:23 How does glyphosate work? 08:05 Glyphosate lawsuits 11:27 What do regulatory agencies in the USA say? 15:43 Glyphosate Products to Avoid 16:39 How do you avoid glyphosate exposure? 18:04 Glyphosate traces in soil, water, and air 21:16 Being vigilant in avoiding Cancer-Causing Glyphosate 23:56 The involvement of the food industry 8:58 Science and spirituality 31:07 The Results 35:25 Huge funding to influence an agenda
Soil degradation and retrogression are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of stable soil. So we think that soil degradation and human demise are the end results if this kind of soil condition continues.
Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state.
Soil is lost due to erosion from wind and water— for example, rivers washing upland or wind blowing dirt away.
Degradation is due to the replacement of primary plant communities by secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount and affects the formation of the soil.
It is directly related to human activity.
What is Soil?
The definition of soil is “The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.” .
Soil is one of the world’s most needed resources. We think about animals and this idea of going “plant only” but don’t understand that this might not be the best thing for ourselves and our environment.
When was the last time, if ever, we thought about soil health? It isn’t something that comes to mind as necessary, even when we think about human survival. Ask yourself what do humans need to survive? Water and food.
Water is found in natural bodies of water, but where do you get food from? Soil is required for plants, animals require plants, and as humans, we need to eat animals and plants.
The Soil Profile
As soils develop over time, layers (or horizons) form a soil profile. Most soil profiles cover the earth as two main layers—topsoil and subsoil.
Soil horizons are the layers in the soil as you move down the soil profile. A soil profile may have soil horizons that are easy or difficult to distinguish. 
Most soils exhibit 3 main horizons:
A horizon: humus-rich topsoil where nutrient, organic matter, and biological activity are highest (i.e., most plant roots, earthworms, insects, and micro-organisms are active). The A horizon is usually darker than other horizons because of the organic materials.
B horizon: clay-rich subsoil that is often less fertile than the topsoil but holds more moisture. It generally has a lighter color and less biological activity than the A horizon. Texture may be heavier than the A horizon too.
C horizon: underlying weathered rock (from which the A and B horizons form).
Some soils also have an O horizon, mainly consisting of plant litter accumulated on the soil surface.
The properties of horizons are used to distinguish between soils and determine land-use potential.
What is in the soil we use?
Soil contains air, water, minerals, and plant and animal matter, both living and dead. These soil components fall into two categories.
In the first category are biotic factors—all the living and once-living things in the soil, such as plants and insects.
The second category consists of abiotic factors, including all nonliving things—minerals, water, and air.
The most common minerals found in soil that support plant growth are phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen gas. Other less common minerals include calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. The biotic and abiotic factors in the soil make up the soil’s composition.
The most significant component of soil is its minerals, accounting for about 45% of its volume. The most common ones are phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen. While the less common ones are magnesium, calcium, and sulfur.
Water is the second essential component of soil. It makes up approximately 2% to 50% of the soil volume. It is vital for transporting nutrients to growing plants and soil organisms and facilitating biological and chemical decomposition. Soil water availability is the capacity of a particular soil to hold water available for plant use.
Organic matter is the next primary component found in soils at levels of approximately 1% to 5%. This matter is derived from dead plants and animals and has a high capacity to hold onto and provide the essential elements and water for plant growth. An organic matter has a tall “plant available” water-holding ability and CEC, which can enhance the growth potential of soils.
Gases and air are the following essential component of soil. They make up approximately 2% to 50% of the soil volume. Oxygen is necessary for root and microbe respiration, which helps support plant growth.
Carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas are also crucial for belowground plant functions like nitrogen-fixing bacteria. If soils remain waterlogged (where gas is displaced by excess water), it can prevent root gas exchange, leading to plant death, a common concern after floods.
Microorganisms are the final fundamental element of soils. They are present in the ground in high numbers but make up less than 1% of the soil volume. An estimate is that, one thimble full of topsoil hols more than 200,000 microbial organisms.
Earthworms and nematodes are the largest organisms found in soil. The smallest are algae, fungi, actinomycetes, and bacteria. Microorganisms are the primary decomposers of raw organic matter. Many decomposers eat up organic matter, water, and air. This is to recycle natural organic matter into humus, rich in plant nutrients .
Nutrient Depleted Soil
Nearly 99 percent of the world’s daily calorie intake can be traced back to the soil. The plants and animals we eat require soil to grow. Soil is vital for human survival, yet modern farming and agricultural practices quickly destroy it.
Worldwide, one-third of the Earth’s soil is at least moderately degraded, and over half of the land used for agriculture has some soil degradation.
Due to intense, mismanaged farming, soil nutrients are declining.
Nitrogen stores have decreased by 42 percent
Phosphorus by 27 percent
Sulfur by 33 percent.
Plants require these nutrients for photosynthesis, enzymes, protein synthesis, and more to grow optimally.
As a result of declining soil fertility and selective breeding, the nutritional contents of some fruits, vegetables, and grains have also been compromised.
In a 2004 study using USDA data, 43 garden crops were analyzed to compare nutritional content in 1950 versus 1999. Some nutrients were unchanged, but calcium, phosphorus, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin C were lower in 1999 compared to 1950, ranging from a 6 percent to 38 percent drop .
The protein content in corn declined from 30 percent to 50 percent from 1920 to 2001, while the starch content increased .
The magnesium content of vegetables and wheat has declined by up to 25 percent. There are trace minerals in vegetable crops. Minerals like manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel, have decreased over the last decades. Toxic minerals like aluminum, lead, and cadmium have increased .
The current agriculture methods produce higher yields but deplete and erode soils. Currently, industrial agriculture is destroying the soil. It is being destroyed at 100 to 1,000 times the rate where it is replenished. It is according to the United Nations estimates. According to their report, we only have 60 years left of harvest in many farming regions.
What contributes to soil degradation and human demise?
Many industrial farms grow one single crop, year after year after year. This kind of practice depletes the soil and contributes to carbon loss and soil erosion. Agricultural farms must include perennial crops, legumes, and forages in rotation. This returns the organic matter in the soil, prevents decay, and replenishes nutrients.
For example, legume crop residues can be converted into nitrogen by soil bacteria, reducing the need for synthetic nitrogen-based fertilizers.
Additionally, monocropping can threaten food security. With a single crop species on millions of acres, one disease could potentially wipe out an entire food system.
Instead of using organic fertilizers, including crop rotations, cover crops, and manure, modern farms require massive amounts of synthetic fertilizers to grow crops continually.
Nitrogen-based fertilizer production has increased by 9.5-fold since 1960. Fertilizer production consumes fossil fuels in a very energy-intensive process, with non-negligible environmental consequences.
Not all the fertilizers applied are used up by the crops. Fifty percent or more of the nitrogen leaches into the environment. Many inorganic fertilizers destroy soil microbes that have roles in soil homeostasis.
Ammonia, nitrate, and other nitrogen residues make their way to groundwater, rivers, and eventually, the ocean. They reduce oxygen levels, increase algae growth, and damage or death to aquatic life.
Farms today till fields to remove crop residues, flatten the land, and generally mix up the topsoil. However, tilling reduces microbe populations in the soil, promotes soil erosion, and releases greenhouse gases. Today, 93 percent of the world’s cropland uses tilling-based methods for production.
Herbicides, Pesticides, and Fungicides
Herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides can help increase crop yield. By keeping weeds and harmful organisms under control. The benefits come with costs. And when this problem continues soil degradation and human demise is going to be our future.
Additionally, pesticide residues make their way into water systems and food. Many health problems have been linked to pesticide exposure, including asthma, neurological issues, and even cancer.
The most well-known herbicide is glyphosate, which is applied to crops for hundreds of millions of pounds each year. Glyphosate has profound environmental and health consequences, covered in this article.
Cows and other ruminants have the unique ability to convert grasses and other plants that are inedible for humans into nutrient-dense, edible animal products.
Best practices dictate that ruminants should rotate among different fields, allowing sections of grass to rest and regrow.
But when cows graze on the same land as in many conventional farms, it contributes to soil erosion. It lowers soil carbon reserves. Overgrazing contributed to the loss of about one-fifth of the world’s grasslands
Unfortunately, the importance of ruminant animals has been almost forgotten. Due to rocky terrain, hills, and climate, much of the world’s land isn’t even conducive for growing crops.
In contrast, cows, sheep, and goats can often thrive on these marginal lands. Yet these areas aren’t being fully utilized to raise ruminants for food and to sequester carbon properly. Instead, we have concentrated animal feeding operations, or CAFO, where grazing is limited, cows are fed grain residues from an outlying farm.
Unity Between the Human Body and Soil
Our body is from soil and water. Without those 2, there is minimal to no possibility of human life. The quality of soil impacts the quality of our physical, spiritual, and mental selves.
Think about evolution or spirituality – if we stem from one at one point. We were the soil or some component of it, so now we are forever bound to the ground. In that soil, there is life, and from that life, there comes bigger life. Not only does it help in a physical sense but spiritual sense too.
When you eat bad food, you feel sick. This sickness manifests physically, mentally, and even spiritually. If you have food poisoning, how do you move? How does it then change your thinking? How does it influence your beliefs? Soil connects to us.
We are treating soil like some infinite disposable thing. Now take a look at how some humans treat other humans? How toxic people in power treat people below them.
The word human stems from the word “humus” in Latin, which means soil. As translated to “living soil” – as in the ground needed for growth. Less and less nutrient-dense foods can lead to the shunting of human growth and function.
To learn more about soil degradation and human demise, watch the full Episode 96 in this video 👇
00:00 Intro 00:52 Plugs 02:08 Soil Degradation and Human Demise 07:25 What is soil? 09:54 The layers of soil 12:35 The essential life-building blocks in soil 16:43 Nutrient Depleted Soil 20:37 Soil Erosion: Monoculture 21:58 Soil Erosion: Synthetic Fertilizers 24:21 Soil Erosion: Tillage-Based Farming 25:19 Soil Erosion: Herbicides, Pesticides, and Fungicides 27:35 Soil Erosion: Mismanaged Grazing 30:14 Unity Between the Human Body and Soil 35:20 Wrapping up the episode