Have you ever felt like you are never good enough or good at something? Did you ever feel like you are not doing as much as others thought you to be? If you feel like a fraud or do not belong anywhere, you might be suffering from Imposter Syndrome.
No matter your social status, race, background, skill, level of expertise are, anyone can suffer from this. We must arm ourselves with knowledge and educate others to help those who are struggling with impostor syndrome.
Overcome Imposter Syndrome
But what is imposter syndrome anyway? How do you know if you are suffering from one? In this new episode, we would like to introduce our guest, Crystal Grant. She is a CRNA, CEO of Superscript Wellness, and author of several books.
Crystal has also worked in the healthcare system for over 20 years and now coaches nurses and CRNAs about imposter syndrome and overcoming it.
She currently has a new book coming out called A CRNA’S Guide to Overcoming Imposter Syndrome. Besides working with nurses and CRNAs, she also has her line of Vitamin gummies.
So, sit back, relax, and enjoy another great episode with your favorite Cup of Nurses!
QUESTIONS FOR OUR GUEST:
Can you give some background about yourself and how you got to the position you are in today?
How was life growing up? What were some of your goals in life? How have they varied over the years? – When we finished nursing school, we were making a decent amount of money, we came out with minimal loans, and we were making more money than a lot of our friends. When we looked back at where we were at the age of 21/22 compared to a lot of other people, it felt like night and day. It still feels that way to this day.
What is Imposter Syndrome? Do you think it comes with success? – Imposter Syndrome is a psychological pattern in which an individual doubts their skills, talents, or accomplishments and has a persistent internalized fear of being exposed as a “fraud”.
With the age of neuroplasticity, we can almost reprogram our brains to react differently. How can we use the concept of neuroplasticity to help us with imposter syndrome or other negative thinking? – Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to form and reorganize synaptic connections, especially in response to learning or experience or following injury.
We are holistic beings which means how we feel physically affects us mentally and how we treat ourselves mentally reflects on us physically. – How important is physical health? The importance of nutrition, exercise, and supplementation.
What are some of the ingredients in the gummies you’ve created, and what are the benefits of micronutrients?
To watch the full episode about How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome, click here and learn more 👇
00:00 Intro 00:47 Plugs 02:03 Episode Introduction 02:35 About Crystal 04:47 Can imposter syndrome be beneficial to someone who has it? 06:38 What happens to a person who has imposter syndrome? 09:32 Imposter Syndrome: The Perfectionist 11:28 How and when did Crystal know that she had imposter syndrome? 15:02 The 5 Types of Imposter Syndrome 17:19 How does a person get imposter syndrome? 21:26 Ways to Overcome Imposter Syndrome? 24:04 Neuroplasticity: Rewiring the brain 26:44 The best investment is in yourself. 32:53 Mindfulness and meditation can help fight Imposter Syndrome. 35:27 The lack of self-belief 37:29 How did Crystal become an entrepreneur? 39:32 How to get into the supplement business? 42:58 Built for nursing, built for success. 47:32 Where to find Crystal?
Encephalopathy, delirium, and coma are disorders of consciousness (DOCs) frequently encountered by critical care nurses.
For nurses in the hospital setting being able to have knowledge of encephalopathy, delirium, and coma is important in improving patient outcomes. Furthermore, it is also vital to perform standardized assessments and interventions that are consistent with the cue-response theory.
The content of consciousness is defined as “the sum of all functions mediated at a cerebral cortical level.” The content of consciousness includes cognition, which reflects how well information is processed and stored across the 2 cerebral hemispheres.
Arousal, on the other hand, refers to the level of consciousness or state of being awake. Consciousness and responsiveness are separate phenomena. Some patients may be aware but not able to respond (eg, locked-in syndrome), and patients may respond to stimuli but not be aware of their surroundings.
Based on current research the thalamocortical interactions are crucial for consciousness experience and voluntary action. The thalamocortical system is made up of the Thalamus and Cerebral Cortex.
Thalamus – the primary function of the thalamus is to relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex.
Cerebral cortex – many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement.
The brain, like other organs, has a limited capacity to withstand injury. The brain reacts to acute stress that can result from:
Metabolic or nutritional derangements
Use of nutrients, glucose, electrolyte level, hydration, or structural damage
A stress response results in multiple cellular-level processes and neurochemical changes that disrupt equilibrium.
This disequilibrium initiates multiple cascades that become a vicious cycle of competition between supply and demand, which are depicted as neuroelectrical changes on an electroencephalogram (EEG).
When the brain can no longer compensate, behavioral symptoms such as altered levels of arousal and disorganized thinking begin to develop.
Progression of Disorders of Consciousness
Delirium is a neurocognitive disorder that presents as an acute change in behavior secondary to impairments in consciousness and cognition. There are 3 types of delirium: hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed.
Regardless of delirium type, individuals are often disoriented to place and time and have impairments in cognitive and visual-motor functions.
Patients with hyperactive delirium tend to have greater disturbances in their circadian rhythm (ie, sleep-wake cycle) and mood lability. Conversely, patients with hypoactive delirium are more likely to be inattentive, have a flat affect, and face challenges with language.
Like delirium, coma is on the continuum of altered states of consciousness. However, with a coma, there is a loss of both awareness and wakefulness
Minimal consciousness state
Persistent vegetative state
ICU Synposis of Consciousness
When a patient has an altered consciousness, after 2 to 4 weeks, the individual will either progressively recover, die, or transition to a minimally conscious or more persistent vegetative state.
The term encephalopathy is derived from 2 ancient Greek words: “enkephalin”, which means “brain,” and pathos, which means “suffering” and is associated with the disease.
Encephalopathy is defined as any diffuse disease of the brain that alters brain function or structure with the “hallmark feature being altered mental status.”
Although the phrases altered level of consciousness and altered mental status are often used interchangeably with encephalopathy, they are not the same. For example, sleep is an altered level of consciousness but is not caused by injury or disease.
Chronic encephalopathy is the result of permanent, usually irreversible, structural changes within the brain. The characteristics of chronic encephalopathy are prolonged alterations in mental status that usually progress slowly.
Examples of these are brain conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias or anoxic brain injury. Acute encephalopathy results from the rapid development of abnormalities in cerebral structure and/or function.
Level of Function
Variable but depressed
Variable but Depressed
The Mechanism Responsible (DOC’s)
Interruptions in the delivery or use of oxygen
Changes in neuronal excitability
Signaling alterations and changes in brain volume.
Toxic and metabolic disturbances
Acute organ failure
Drugs and/or alcohol
Disorders of consciousness and illness severity are linked by the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which response to stress by impairing glucocorticoid and glucose metabolism.
The severity of the DOC is directly proportional to the levels of glucocorticoids and glucose in the blood that enters the brain (Stress response). In addition to that, the levels of these substances are directly proportional to the strength of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response, and that response is directly proportional to the severity of the illness.
Early First Signs of Delirium Are Often:
Subtle changes in focus and attention, including distractibility,
Delays in responding to stimuli
Short-term memory deficits
Prevention of Delirium in the Hospital
Nurses should pay particular attention to the following to prevent and resolve delirium:
Resuming home medications
Minimizing the use of chemical and physical restraints,
Providing adequate pain management and high-quality basic nursing care.
Practice habits such as nighttime bathing, promoting uninterrupted sleep as well as day-time activity
Nursing Care for Comatose Patients in the ICU
Enteral tube feeding
Promotion of regularity of bowel and bladder functions
Airway management such as suctioning tracheostomy tube
Management of muscle tone (excessive tightness of muscles)
Prevention of infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection
Management of other medical concerns such as fever, seizures, etc
If you want to know more about the disorders of consciousness, check out our full episode here 👇
00:00 Intro 00:44 Plugs 02:31 Episode Introduction 04:35 What exactly is consciousness? 06:37 What happens to the brain? 11:38 Progression of disorders of consciousness 17:24 What is encephalopathy? 19:58 The mechanism responsible for the disorder 20:37 The Potential Causes of Consciousness Disorder 24:57 FUN FACT: How does DOC severity determine? 25:52 What are the early signs of delirium 28:54 How to prevent and resolve delirium 32:23 Nursing care for comatose patients in the ICU 33:55 Area management 35:10 Wrapping up the episode
Can caffeine affect your body? The short answer is yes. In this episode and honor of Caffeine Awareness month, we will discuss how caffeine affects your body and is effects after consuming it for a long time.
Most Americans use caffeine daily but don’t even know what it is or what caffeine exactly does. About 85% of people in the US consume at least one caffeine beverage/per day .
What is Caffeine, and Can Caffeine Affect Your Body?
When someone says caffeine, we immediately think of coffee. And while coffee has caffeine, it’s not it. Caffeine is a bitter-tasting, white, and odorless powder. It is naturally found in the fruit, leaves, and beans of coffee, cacao, and guarana plants. The truth is that caffeine is added to almost all kinds of food and drinks.
It is also a Central Nervous System Stimulant and one of the most common psychoactive drugs used globally. In addition to that, caffeine is the only legal, unregulated psychoactive drug.
So, the next time you wonder why you are addicted to caffeine, it’s because of its psychoactive properties.
How Caffeine Acts in the Body
The way caffeine works are thought to be mediated by several mechanisms:
Antagonism of adenosine receptors
The inhibition of phosphodiesterase
Release of calcium from intracellular stores
The antagonism of benzodiazepine receptors
The most common one is that it blocks the action of adenosine on its receptors and prevents the drowsiness associated with it.
When a person is awake and alert, small amounts of adenosine are present in CNS. Over time, adenosine accumulates in the neuronal synapse by being constantly awake.
Once adenosine increases, it binds and activates the receptors found on specific CNS neurons.
When activated, the adenosine receptors produce a cellular response that increases drowsiness.
What Happens to Adenosine?
When caffeine is consumed, it antagonizes the adenosine receptors. Caffeine prevents adenosine from activating the receptor by blocking the receptor site. Therefore, caffeine temporarily prevents or relieves drowsiness and maintains or restores alertness .
Caffeine also increases energy metabolism throughout the brain but can also decrease cerebral blood flow, which induces relative brain hypoperfusion .
Due to the blocking of adenosine inhibitory effects through its receptors, caffeine indirectly affects the release of the following :
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase
Phosphodiesterase inhibition prevents the ability to break down cAMP and cGMP. The levels inside the cell increase, therefore, leading to a decrease in calcium levels in the cell. It leads to vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation.
Caffeine is a vasoconstrictor and works mainly in your heart and brain. However, it vasodilates your peripheral and bronchial vessels as well.
Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storage
Caffeine affect the body by taking calcium from the bone and introducing it into the bloodstream. Most studies show that this amount is not substantial enough to cause osteoporosis, and the calcium loss can be replaced by adding some milk.
Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist
Studies show that caffeine has weak antagonistic properties at the benzodiazepine receptor sites. The reaction, however, can be due to adenosine suppression .
SNS vs. PNS
The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) controls homeostasis. The PNS maintains the body at rest and is responsible for the “rest and digest” functions.
Similarly, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls the body’s responses to a perceived threat and is responsible for the “fight or flight” response.
Effects of Caffeine on the Body
Caffeine’s direct effects on the body are due to the inactivation of adenosine receptors. It leads to greater stimulation of the SNS, causing various effects. Here are the most common effects of caffeine on the body:
Increase in alertness
The stimulating effects of caffeine cause alertness right away. In addition to that, it can also temporarily relieve drowsiness and fatigue.
Decreased suicide risk – check with your doctor
One study found that the mood-enhancing effects of caffeine were linked to a percent lower risk of suicide in participants.
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Caffeine affects your body by resulting in a rapid heartbeat. In that case, this may be a concern if you have a preexisting heart issue. You may notice arrhythmias whenever you have caffeine.
It can also temporarily raise your blood pressure. The effects may be especially noticeable if you have caffeine during or right before exercise or other physical activity.
Too much caffeine can overstimulate the brain, leading to confusion or the inability to focus on one task.
A headache can occur from either too much caffeine or as a symptom of caffeine withdrawal. But specific amounts can help with headaches.
When your body is used to caffeine, you can experience irritability as a symptom of withdrawal.
The acidity of certain caffeinated products, like coffee and soda, may cause heartburn.
Caffeine can also help regulate your bowel movement, but too much intake can cause opposite effects like diarrhea.
Some women who consume too much caffeine might experience difficulties getting pregnant. If you’re trying to get pregnant, It’s best not to consume more than 300 mg per day.
Consuming too much caffeine affects your body during pregnancy, which may cause miscarriage and developmental issues in newborns.
It’s recommended that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. It equals about one 12-ounce cup of coffee.
Caffeine prevents calcium absorption in the bones, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. As you get older, your bones may break more easily.
Frequent urination may be experienced when you consume too much caffeine. Caffeine affects the body as a diuretic, and long-term use of high amounts of caffeine may increase bladder instability. It can worsen the risk for those already experiencing bladder problems.
Caffeine can give you the jitters if you’re not used to it. If you have an anxiety disorder or sleep disorder, caffeine may make it worse.
Metabolization of Caffeine
Caffeine from coffee or other beverages is absorbed by the small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion and distributed throughout all bodily tissues.
Peak blood concentration is reached within 1–2 hours.
Caffeine’s biological half liver varies from individual to individual, roughly between 2 and 7 hrs.
It can also be absorbed rectally. However, the rectal route has a 30% lesser absorption rate .
To watch the full Episode 92, click here for more 👇
0:00 Intro 0:50 Plugs 2:16 Episode Intro 6:07 The only unregulated psychoactive drug 10:19 How Caffeine Acts in the Body 10:25 Adenosine Antagonist 13:03 Caffeine decreases cerebral blood flow 15:39 Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 16:29 Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storages 18:52 Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist 23:13 A possible reason why you are irritable 25:00 Effects of Caffeine 25:10 Increase in alertness 29:18 Tips on setting your body clock 33:07 Estimating time when to take caffeine 39:32 Frequent urination 39:58 Too much caffeine can cause diarrhea 40:41 Decreased suicide risk 46:33 Caffeine as medicine
EP 155: Why Self-Care is Important For Women With Isabel Bogdan
How important is your health? Self-care is important, but what steps are you taking to meet your needs? Do you do something about it? Or do you wait till you are diagnosed with a disease to get moving? In the era we live in, it is easier to pop pills when you are not feeling well than reevaluate your entire body and mind to get to the root cause of the problem.
It is a known fact that many people today are more dependent on medication than doing something to change their condition. Why is it easier to take pills than make the change you need? When did people stop eating well and doing exercises that can benefit them as a whole?
We are joined by our guest, Dr. Isabel Bogdan, founder and owner of belev.co. She is also a health nurse practitioner with a doctorate in nursing practice. Dr. Bogdan has the vision to intertwine traditional medicine with a holistic approach for transformational change.
Join us today as we discuss the importance of holistic care and how it can change our way of looking at our health in this fantastic episode of Cup of Nurses.
QUESTIONS FOR OUR GUEST
The questions below are some we’d like to tackle. We go off-topic all the time so we don’t expect to hit them all. If you have any ideas please let us know. Looking forward to our conversation!
Can you give us a background about yourself and your nursing experience?
What does it feel like to be in the daily life of Isabelle?
What have you seen as being the biggest factor associated with poor health, particularly women’s health?
On an emotional level, what do women struggle with the most?
How do you heal people in life?
What are women struggling with most in their lives?
How do you control your hormonal health?
How do you change people’s beliefs for them to think they’re superheroes of their journey.
What is your current obsession? – How are you making an impact in disease prevention?
Why is self-care important? Learn more and watch the full episode here 👇
00:00 Intro 00:49 Plugs 2:52 Episode Introduction 4:58 The Reason: Why is Conventional Medicine Failing? 8:52 All about Yoga 16:19 How is yoga done and how does it benefit the body? 20:45 Yoga’s spiritual side? 23:18 What are women struggling with most in their lives? 28:52 Isabel’s Take on What Is “Consciousness” 32:29 What is the impact of hormonal health? 38:40 What supplements can you take to stay optimal? 41:06 Dietary Consultation with Isabel 47:15 Everything is good in moderation. 51:37 All about gut health. 57:00 A study shows that cranberry juice prevents UTIs. 57:49 How to empower people to be the superheroes of their lives. 1:08:41 Where to find Isabel?
In our latest episode, we will be talking about the Russian invasion of Ukraine and their attempts to seize control over this country.
A Story in History
We all want to know what is the reason behind this attack, so we did a little digging and found out interesting facts regarding Ukraine and Russia’s conflict:
Ukraine is the second-largest country in Europe after Russia. The country also shares boulders with Poland, Slovakia, Hungry, Romania, and Moldova. The government also has a coastline along the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.
After the Russian Revolution, a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged and was internationally recognized as the Ukrainian People’s Republic on 23 June 1917.
In 1922 the Ukrainian SSR helped establish the Soviet Union. Ukraine then regained its independence in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Kyiv is said to be the birthplace of Russia. So naturally, Ukraine’s move toward the Western bloc has made the Russian establishment feel betrayed in the name of having a democratic state.
The national identity and history of Kyiv are more linked to Russia than Turkic states in Central Asia or Baltic states in Eastern Europe.
In addition to that, Moscow’s ruling establishment feels so emotional because the first Russian state was called Kievan Rus, which was established in Kyiv 12 centuries ago.
Even the name of Russia originated in the name of this loose confederation of Eastern Slavic, Baltic and Finnic nations.
Rurik, the founding leader of the Kievan Rus dynasty, has been considered one of the godfathers of the Russian state. Interestingly, Rurik did not have Slavic origins, but he had Viking blood in his veins.
Russia has been aggressive with shifting its borders for the past decade. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the breakdown of the KGB, rumors started circulating. The story was that Russia wanted to regain its lost lands, and this began with Crimea in 2014.
Crimean Peninsula became a part of post-Soviet Ukraine in 1991, of which Crimea was a part since 1954. In 2014, Russia annexed the peninsula and established two federal subjects there, the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol.
However, the territories are still internationally recognized as being part of Ukraine. In 2022 Russia again stepped into Ukraine, this time with unknown goals.
Why did Russia attack Ukraine?
There is much speculation about the rationale for Russian President Vladimir Putin to launch an invasion of Ukraine. No one knows what is going on, and it is hard to tell. We live in the age of the internet and the age of information.
The problem with that is that there is so much information that it is hard to tell what is correct and false. We know that the U.S. has been involved in Ukrainian politics for many years now.
Ukraine’s natural resources may be a reason for this Russian invasion
Ukraine has an abundance of some of the most valuable resources. The extraction of natural gas in Ukraine accounted for one-third of the Soviet Union’s total output in the early 1960s. Although largely unexploited, the country also has the second-biggest known gas reserves in Europe, apart from Russia’s gas reserves in Asia.
Ironically enough, Ukraine depends on gas imports primarily because the USSR began extracting gas on a large scale in Siberia in the 1970s. Germany is also a big consumer of Russia’s natural gas. The country gets 55 percent of its natural gas from Russia, and the bulk of it goes through Ukraine, which earns a transit fee equivalent to $7 billion.
Much of the gas exploration and production have been transferred to Russia, due to which Ukraine’s resources remain untapped. Presently, Russia supplies 40 percent to 50 percent of Europe’s gas consumption via the Nord Stream 1 pipeline and the Ukrainian network.
Apart from natural gas, Ukraine is rich in minerals such as iron, coal, titanium, and other non-metallic raw materials. It’s the leading nation for reserves of titanium, iron, and non-metallic raw materials. Many believe that Ukraine’s abundance of minerals could also be one of the probable reasons for this Russian invasion.
Ores such as iron, titanium, and non-metallic raw materials are some of the country’s major exports, iron ore ($3.36 billion), corn ($4.77 billion), semi-finished iron ($2.55 billion), and seed oils ($3.75 billion). Ukraine was the fifth largest exporter of iron ore in the world in 2019, and in the same year, iron ore was the third most-exported product in the country.
Lithium and titanium are some of the precious metals on earth today. The Dobra and Donetsk mines were up for grabs, and there has been cut-throat competition between Chinese Chengxin Lithium and Australia-listed European Lithium. Both the companies want a foothold in the European lithium industry. Some estimates indicate that up to 20 percent of the world’s titanium reserves are situated in Ukraine .
Fear of Ukraine Entering NATO and the E.U.
Relations between Ukraine and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) started in 1992. Ukraine applied to begin a NATO Membership Action Plan (MAP) in 2008. However, plans for NATO membership were shelved by the country following the 2010 presidential election, where Viktor Yanukovych won. He preferred to keep the country non-aligned with NATO.
Following the Russian military invasion in Ukraine and parliamentary elections in October 2014, the new government prioritized joining NATO. According to polls conducted between 2005 and 2013, Ukrainian public support for NATO membership remained low. However, since the Russo-Ukrainian War and Annexation of Crimea, public support for Ukrainian membership in NATO has risen dramatically.
Since June 2014, polls showed that about 50% of those asked supported Ukrainian NATO membership. Some 69% of Ukrainians want to join NATO. According to a June 2017 poll by the Democratic Initiatives Foundation, it was compared to 28% support in 2012 when Yanukovych was in power.
President Putin has made clear that he sees the country’s aspirations to join the group as a threat to Russia’s borders and its sphere of influence. “Ukraine is an inalienable part of our history, culture, and spiritual space. These are our comrades, those dear to us – not only colleagues, friends, and people who once served together but also relatives, people bound by blood, by family ties.” .
Putin’s speech from 2/24/2022 mentions how NATO has broken treaties and international law, instead emphasizing the circumstances they interpret as they think necessary. One reference is the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, and the airstrikes lasted from 24 March 1999 to 10 June 1999.
NATO’s intervention was prompted by Yugoslavia’s bloodshed and ethnic cleansing of Albanians, which drove them into neighboring countries and had the potential to destabilize the region. Then he mentions Iraq, Lybia & Syria. The illegal use of military power against Libya and the distortion of all the U.N. Security Council decisions on Libya.
Syria is another example of the combat operations conducted by the western coalition in that country without the Syrian government’s approval. He quoted, “In many regions where the United States brought its law and order, this created bloody, non-healing wounds and the curse and international terrorism and extremism.”
The U.S. Sanctions that they gave to Russia
U.S. President Joe Biden announced sanctions on VEB bank and Russia’s military bank, referring to Promsvyazbank, which does defense deals. The Treasury Department said, “All assets under U.S. jurisdiction will be immediately frozen, and U.S. individuals and entities are prohibited from doing business.”
According to Russia’s central bank data, total Russian banking foreign assets and liabilities stood at $200.6 billion and $134.5 billion, respectively.
One of the harshest measures would be to disconnect the Russian financial system from SWIFT, which handles international monetary transfers and is used by more than 11,000 financial institutions in over 200 countries.
The U.S. imposed sanctions on working directly with individuals based out of Russia. They also imposed sanctions against Russian elites close to Putin.
Energy Corporates & Nord Stream 2
America and the E.U. already have sanctions on Russia’s energy and defense sectors, with state-owned gas company Gazprom, its oil arm Gazpromneft and oil producers Lukoil, Rosneft, and Surgutneftegaz facing various types of curbs on exports/imports and debt-raising.
Nord Stream is a system of offshore natural gas pipelines in Europe, running under the Baltic Sea from Russia to Germany.
The White House has told the U.S. chip industry to be ready for new restrictions on exports to Russia if Moscow attacks Ukraine, including potentially blocking Russia’s access to global electronics supplies .
Final Thoughts on This Russian Invasion
We don’t want another world war to erupt at this point. The ongoing crisis has left many of us on the edge of our seats. Hopefully, it can still be resolved so that we can all live in peace.
And if you want to watch the full episode on this, click here for more:
00:00 Intro 00:41 Plugs 01:54 Episode Beginning 06:04 About Ukraine 09:54 Is the birthplace of the Russian Empire in Ukraine? 12:57 When did Russian aggression start? 13:58 Possible reasons why Russia attacked Ukraine 16:39 Ukraine has a lot of natural resources 19:32 Russia’s fears of Ukraine entering NATO and the EU 25:52The Hypocrisy of the West 29:54 The sanctions only affect innocent citizens 36:00 The Financial Sanctions 39:44 Cryptocurrency dragged into war. Is it good or bad? 43:20 The dangers of the government abusing its authority 47:42 Wrapping up the episode