Alzheimer’s Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Alzheimer’s Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurologic disorder that causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and brain cells to die. It is one of the most common causes of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that affect a person’s ability to function independently [1]. Here are known facts about this disease:

  • Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60-80% of dementia cases.
  • It is not a normal part of aging. Drastic and progressive memory decline over time in older adults is not a normal part of aging. There is also an early onset of Alzheimer’s that can start before the age of 65.
  • Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease and it gets worse over time. 
  • There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease.
  • The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations.
  • As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer’s disease develops severe memory impairment. They will lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

People with Alzheimer’s may:

  • Repeat statements and questions over and over.
  • Forget conversations, appointments, or events, and do not remember them later.
  • Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations.
  • Get lost in familiar places.
  • Eventually, forget the names of family members and everyday objects.
  • Have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts, or take part in conversations [2].

What do we know about Alzheimer’s disease?

The psychological features of Alzheimer’s disease are aggregation and accumulation of different amyloid-beta. Research shows that when amyloid-beta is no longer cleared from the brain. It accumulates. This leads to neurodegeneration long before the symptoms of Alzheimer’s are visible.
 
It is most likely that the disease is the result of the buildup of two proteins in the brain. These proteins are the amyloid-beta and tau. It is also thought to be due to age and/or genetic factors [3].
 

What is Beta-amyloid?

Beta-amyloid is a small piece of a larger protein called “amyloid precursor protein”. Scientists have not yet determined APP’s normal function, they know how it appears to work.
 
In its complete form, APP extends from the inside of brain cells to the outside. It is by passing through the fatty membrane around the cell. When APP is “activated” to do its normal job, it is then cut by other proteins.
 
It separates into smaller sections that stay inside and outside cells. There are several different ways APP can be cut. Under some circumstances, one of the pieces produced is beta-amyloid [4].
 

Why is beta-amyloid a prime suspect in Alzheimer’s disease?

Beta-amyloid is “stickier” than other fragments produced when APP is cut. It accumulates in stages into microscopic amyloid plaques. These are often considered a hallmark of a brain affected by Alzheimer’s.
 
The pieces first form small clusters called oligomers. It then chains of clusters called fibrils, then “mats” of fibrils called beta-sheets. Their final stage is plaques, which contain clumps of beta-sheets and other substances.
 
An amyloid hypothesis states that these stages of beta-amyloid aggregation disrupt cell-to-cell communication. It also activates immune cells. These immune cells trigger inflammation and the brain cells are then destroyed [5].
 

Gut and Alzheimer’s Disease

Recent research shows a potential link between our gut and Alzheimer’s disease. As we have found out, a big part of our immune system lives in the gut [6].

With this information, it is good to speculate that a good part of our immune system lies in the gut. Alzheimer’s is a disease of inflammation then there may be some relation between the gut and Alzheimer’s.
 

Looking at some research we realized that: 

  • Imbalances in gut microbes could contribute to amyloid plaques in the brain. It raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, researchers suggest.
  • Researchers noted previous studies have shown that those with the condition tend to have altered gut microbiota. It is compared to those without dementia.
  • Many lifestyle strategies can boost gut health. It includes healthy eating, exercise, stress management, and getting quality sleep.
  • People that develop Alzheimer’s have a different gut biome than people that don’t.
  • People that have Alzheimer’s have a different gut biome compared to people without it.
 

Changes to your diet can play a role in developing Alzheimer’s 

  • Proteins from lean meat and fish break down into amino acids that form the basis of brain cells.
  • Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains provide essential carbohydrates. These are glucose, giving the brain much-needed fuel.
  • Healthy fats like omega-3 fatty acids support the immune system. It helps lower inflammation, and shield your brain from damage.
  • Fermented foods can increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut. It also helps improve both gut and brain health.
  • Drinking enough water helps hydrate the brain cells. It provides them with their needed electrolytes and water to function.
 
We are human beings, not machines. This means that every system and function in our body are also linked. Each system affects another. One study drew the relationship between gut microbiome composition. It also shows the relationship between sleep habits and cognitive flexibility. Sleep, diet, and cognition have been shown to correlate. 
 
Not only does sleep help your microbiome, but it works the other way as well. A healthy gut will give you a better night of sleep. It is according to W. Christopher Winter, MD. Dr. Winter is the president of Charlottesville Neurology and Sleep Medicine. He is also the author of The Sleep Solution.
 
“Sleep disturbances can contribute to gastrointestinal issues, which can worsen your sleep problems,” he says. “Whatever your goal might be, whether it’s better gut health or improved brain health, it’s easiest to start with establishing good habits around the basics, like sleep, food, exercise, and mindfulness.” [7].

An article in Science Daily stated that:

The following universities conducted an important study on Alzheimer’s
  • University of Geneva (UNIGE)
  • University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) in Switzerland
  • National Research and Care Center for Alzheimer’s
  • Psychiatric Diseases Fatebenefratelli in Brescia
  • University of Naples
  • IRCCS SDN Research Center in Naples
 
All confirmed the correlation between the gut microbiota and the development of amyloid plaques. These were found in the brain which they believe to be the origin of Alzheimer’s disease.

Proteins produced by certain intestinal bacteria identified in patients’ blood could indeed modify the interaction between the immune and the nervous systems and trigger the disease. 

These results, to be discovered in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, make it possible to envisage new preventive strategies based on the modulation of the microbiota of people at risk [8].

A study published on Feb 25, 2021, also saw a similar correlation.

This study assessed whether behavioral and cognitive performance in 6-month-old AppNL-F, AppNL-G-F, and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice was associated with the gut microbiome and whether the genotype modulates this association.

The integrated gut microbiome hippocampal DNA methylation analysis revealed a positive relationship between amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) within the Lachnospiraceae family and methylation at the Apoe gene.

Hence, these microbes may elicit an impact on AD-relevant behavioral and cognitive performance via epigenetic changes in AD-susceptibility genes in neural tissue, or such changes in the epigenome can produce alterations in intestinal physiology that affect the growth of these taxa in the gut microbiome [9].

Foods to Avoid When Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease

People who don’t develop Alzheimer’s have been shown to eat a more diversified diet. It also includes a diversity of healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, seafood, and meat. 

The unfortunate news is that most foods that increase cognitive decline and potentially play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease are also staples in the modern American diet. 

  • White foods: bread, white rice, pasta, white flour, and sugar.
    • It causes a spike in glucose and insulin, potentially causing inflammation and damage to the brain.
  • Processed meats and cheeses: American cheese, canned cheese, mozzarella sticks, sausage, canned meats, cold cuts, etc.
    • Build up amyloid in your body.

Want to learn more? Check out the full Episode 76 here 👇

SHOW NOTES:

0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
1:42 Episode Introduction
4:33 What is Alzheimer’s Disease
8:03 What is beta-amyloid?
13:27 Gut and Alzheimer’s disease
15:40 Changes to your diet can play a role in developing Alzheimer’s
21:50 Study about gut biome relating to Alzheimer’s disease
28:24 Foods to avoid when preventing Alzheimer’s

 

EP 139: Nursing with Jessica Sites

EP 139: Nursing with Jessica Sites

The nursing world is a place of wonder and awe in terms of caring for patients. We meet all kinds of people; the young, old, and we also help bring them into this world. This week, we were joined by another wonderful guest in the podcast, Nurse Jessica Sites.

Jessica Sites has been a labor and delivery nurse for over 20 years, social media personality, and voice for the nursing community. We talk about the impact of poor management on nursing and how healthcare has changed over the years.

  1. How did you start off as a nurse? What was your calling?
  2. How was your time as Labor and Delivery nurse?
  3. What are some day-to-day things you do in labor and delivery?
  4. What was one challenging day or night or a memorable experience on the unit that you can remember?  
  5. Share the toughest part about being a labor and delivery nurse? 
  6. How was the unit culture?
  7. What made you leave the profession?

SHOW NOTES:

0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
1:53 Episode Introduction
2:24 Jessica’s Nursing Background
8:30 Day Flow of a Labor & Delivery Nurse
12:30 What are the difficulties in L&D?
17:56 What are the nurse personalities in L&D?
19:35 What part of L&D Struggles you the most?
47:54 Advise to Nursing Students
50:48 What made you leave bedside?
55:43 What are your future goals?
1:04:00 Where to find Jessica Sites?

No Nut November

No Nut November

Benefits of Sex

In this episode, we will talk about no nut November and if it is something we should practice. We’re all adults here, so we can admit that sex is great. It’s something that everyone has the urge to do, it’s programmed in nature, and it’s in our genes to procreate. It’s something that we do to keep our species going.

Sex During the Pandemic

We took a look at how the pandemic has impacted no nut November and sex worldwide. When the pandemic hit, it forced many businesses to close; many of those businesses were where people went to socialize, so one can hypothesize that there would be a decline in sex [1]

We looked at a meta-analysis that included a review of 34 articles from 18 countries, and their finding was quite stunning.

  • About 43% of people had a worsening or a decline in sexual intercourse.
  • A 28% increase in solo masturbation has been reported.
  • Increase in desire but no increase in sexual intercourse.
  • 32% of people that had planned on having children abandoned the idea. 

We also took at birth trends from March 2019 to 2020, and there was a decline of 0.91%, about 1.5 million less than the prior year. It makes sense because people were not sure about the effects of Covid-19 on newborns and pregnant women [2]. 

The Health Benefits of Sex

According to the American Sexual Health Association, being sexually healthy means :

  • Understanding that sexuality is a natural part of life involves more than sexual behavior.
  • It is being able to experience sexual pleasure, satisfaction, and intimacy when desired.
  • It is about being to communicate about sexual health with others, including sexual partners and healthcare providers.
  • Having access to sexual health information, education, and care.

1. Headache relief

One observational study looked at 800 migraine patients and 200 cluster headache patients, asking for experience with sexual activity during a headache attack [3].

  • In total, 38% of the migraine patients and 48% of the patients with cluster headaches responded. In migraine, 34% of the patients had experienced sexual activity during an attack. Out of these patients, 60% reported an improvement in their migraine attacks.
  • In cluster headache, 31% of the patients had experienced sexual activity during an attack. Out of these patients, 37% reported an improvement in their cluster headache attack. 91% of them reported moderate to complete relief.
  • Researchers concluded that sexual activity could lead to partial or complete relief in some migraine. It can also help a few cluster headache patients.

2. Good cardiovascular exercise

The objective of this study was to determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young, healthy couples in their natural environment.

  • The energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men were 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively, and in women, 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min 8.4 METS, respectively.

Just like any physical activity, healthy sex is good for your heart. A study published in January 2015 in the American Journal of Cardiology found that men who had sex twice weekly or more had less risk of cardiovascular diseases, like stroke or heart attack than those who had sex once a month or less [4].

3. Helps with menstrual cramps

One study took a look at if there is any benefit of sex for menstruating women.

  • We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship.
  • Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a person’s romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – areas not associated with distraction-induced analgesia. The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain [5].

4. It makes you happy 

One study we looked at examined how long does the post-sex glow last.

  • We explored how long sexual satisfaction would remain elevated following sex and predicted that stronger sexual afterglow would characterize more satisfying partnerships.
  • 214 couples were surveyed
  • Spouses reported their daily sexual activity and sexual satisfaction for 14 days and their marital satisfaction at baseline and 4 or 6 months later. Results demonstrated that sexual pleasure remained elevated approximately 48 hr after sex, and spouses experiencing a stronger afterglow reported higher levels of marital satisfaction both at baseline and over time [6].

Effects of Porn

It has been reported that porn addiction has risen here in the US. The internet is vastly used. The ease of access to any search puts almost no limitation on what you can view. Porn addiction has become natural for 5-8% of men. 

What is Porn Addiction?

Thanks to the internet, everyone has access to porn sites these days. If you are addicted to porn or have a developing porn addiction, you should watch out for the warning signs and seek help before it’s too late [7].

  • People addicted to porn spend at least 11 to 12 hours per week viewing porn.
  • Most people who have a porn addiction say that porn hurts their relationships.
  • Many conditions co-occur with porn addiction, including anxiety, depression, sex addiction, social anxiety, and substance use disorders.
  • The prognosis for porn addiction is good with cognitive behavioral therapy and counseling.

Effects of Porn Addiction

The purpose of one study was to examine the relationship between men’s pornography use. It also shows their frequency and problematic use. This study also showed the effects on their heterosexual female partners. It includes the psychological and relational well-being among 308 young adult college women.
 
Results showed that women with male partners who view porn often have a negative impact on their relationships. It has affected their self-esteem, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.
 
Additionally, a woman’s self-esteem and their partner’s problematic porn use affect the quality relationship [8].

Have you participated in the No Nut November? Watch here for more 👇👇👇

SHOW NOTES:

0:00 Cup of Nurses Intro
1:45 Episode Introduction
4:00 Sex During the Pandemic
8:03 Health Benefits of Sex
10:24 Headache Relief
13:49 Good Cardiovascular Exercise
15:40 Helps With Menstrual Cramps
17:23 Makes you happy
20:57 What is Porn Addiction
25:15 Effects of Addiction

 

EP 138: How’s Travel Nursing Going in Texas

EP 138: How’s Travel Nursing Going in Texas

EP 138: How’s Travel Nursing Going in Texas

 

Breaks vs. Cali 

Travel nursing is fun! You get to experience the different parts of the country. But how’s travel nursing in other states? Currently, we are in Texas, we have breaks totaling 30 min versus California we had a total of 1 hour of breaks. Things are different because we do not have a break nurse on the unit. In Texas, there is something called a task nurse instead to help the nurses on the unit.

Delayed Start 

Even as experienced travelers we ran into roadblocks. This was our first contract that didn’t go according to plan, we started on 10/25 instead of 10/11. Things we had to plan out when it comes to starting dates are; flights, housing, and transportation.

Charting system Meditech vs. Epic

One of the most frequent tools we use in the hospitals to complete our job is the medical electronic record. In our Texas contract Meditech is completely different from Epic. It is like comparing Windows 98 to the new Macbook system. 

Paper Charting 

Segwaying from an older charting system, there are fewer spots to chart important information such as medication wasted. So to continue tracking things like high-risk medication, in our current contract we need to document by drips by paper in the ICU. The rounding sheet is still paper copied through most health systems. 

Working Night Shift

Even if you can’t change your shifts, what you do before, during, and after the shift can make a huge difference to your sleepiness and your general mood we realized. We have 4 years of experience working nights so we didn’t have too much of an issue getting back to working 7p – 7a. 

3-day Orientation 

This was the biggest shocker, that they gave us three days of orientation on a travel nursing assignment. In most places, you will get a full shift if you’re lucky and sometimes you’ll get 4 hours. 

Same Schedule 

This is something we always strive for as travel nurses. Since we have only 1 car in Texas, it’s crucial to have the same schedule. Usually, on orientation week you will be able to meet the manager or scheduler, to talk about your schedule.

Getting paid for CBLs

Before you set out, make sure how the travel nursing contract works. You will have to sit through a few hours of education health streams for your facility. This can take sometimes up to 8 hours, make sure you get paid for everything from your agency if it’s not on the facility. 

Reimbursements 

If you applied to a new state for your license to travel nurse, save all your receipts! One negative of having a California license is having to pay for verification to another state which costs $100 per license just for verification from California. The license fee total may cost up to $400+, make sure you get your money back for the hard work as a nurse. 

No BP Recycle on Monitors 

As ICU nurses we like to know our vital signs in real-time. In this hospital, they have G.E monitors that don’t allow you to cycle your cuff in the nurse’s station

Nursing Fact Sheet

  • Nursing is the nation’s largest healthcare profession, with more than 3.8 million registered nurses (RNs) nationwide. Of all licensed RNs, 84.5% are employed in nursing.
  • The federal government projects that more than 200,000 new registered nurse positions will be created each year from 2016-2026. 
  • Registered Nurses comprise one of the largest segments of the U.S. workforce as a whole and are among the highest paying large occupations. Nearly 58% of RNs worked in general medical and surgical hospitals, where RN salaries averaged $70,000 per year according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  • The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts a 19% growth by the year 2022.
  • Nurses comprise the largest component of the healthcare workforce, are the primary providers of hospital patient care, and deliver most of the nation’s long-term care.

If you are interested to work in Austin, check out our Austin, Texas travel nurse experience here 👇

SHOW NOTES:

0:00 Cup of Nurses Intro
2:14 Episode Introduction
5:44 Breaks vs Cali
12:22 Delayed Start of Contract
15:14 Charting System Meditech vs Epic
18:20 Paper Charting
19:58 Working Night Shift
24:40 Same Schedule
26:14 Getting Paid for CBLs
27:16 Reimbursements
28:09 No BP Recycle on Monitors

The Effects of Diabetes on Your Body

The Effects of Diabetes on Your Body

CON EP 74: The Effects of Diabetes on Your Body 

November is National Diabetes Month and to bring awareness to it we’d like to teach you all about the effects of diabetes, from prevention to how it impacts a person on the cellular level in this episode.

What is Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body has a problem with turning food into energy.

When you eat food majority of it, for example, carbs, get broken down into something called glucose. Glucose is then used by the body for energy.

Role of glucose:

  • Needed for energy and proper cellular function
  • Glucose comes directly from food or is made by the liver (glucogenesis)
  • Glucose hangs out in the bloodstream before being transferred into the cell by insulin
  • When blood sugar is low the liver breaks down glycogen into glucose. 

Role of insulin:

  • Produced by the beta cells in the pancreas
  • Insulin is a hormone that circulates in your blood
  • Insulin help cells use glucose for energy

When your body senses an increase in glucose in the blood it notifies the pancreas to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin then allows your body’s cells to use glucose.

Without insulin your body would not be able to use glucose, it is like insulin is the key to the door to let glucose into the cell. 

When you have diabetes your body either doesn’t make enough insulin to counter the glucose or can’t use insulin properly. During this disruption blood sugar stays elevated causing chronic inflammation and leading to other problems like heart disease, eye damage, kidney impairment. 

Currently, there is no cure for diabetes but there are ways to prevent it. Some people are also born with diabetes. 

Diabetes is a chronic disease requiring medication and lifestyle changes, however, when managed properly the life of a person with diabetes is minimally changed. 

Diabetes Facts:

In 2020, 34.2 million people have diabetes. With this, 26.9 million have been diagnosed while 7.3 million others have undiagnosed diabetes [1]. This shows that the effects of diabetes affect millions of people. 

In the same year, 88 million people or 30% of the US population aged 18 years old or older were reported to have pre-diabetes.

The 2030 Estimates

It has been hypothesized that the prevalence of diabetes will increase by 54% between the years 2015 and 2030. That’s around 54.9 million Americans suffering from this disease.

The total annual medical and societal costs related to diabetes will also increase to 53% or more than $622 billion by 2030 [2]. While it is believed that the total number of people with diabetes will rise from ∼11 million in 2000 to almost 20 million by 2025 [3].

Types of Diabetes

There are a few different types of diabetes, type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. All are dangerous in their own way and can lead to other health-related problems and even death. 

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone and it can even start from birth. In type 1 diabetes the pancreas does not produce insulin. The person with type 1 diabetes is going to be insulin-dependent because without it cells cannot absorb glucose. 

2. Type 2 Diabetes

In type 2 diabetes either the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or your body cannot use the insulin properly. Certain people that fall under this category of diabetes can manage their blood sugar with diet and exercise while other people may need medication or even insulin. 

3. Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a little different than the prior types. This diabetes affects pregnant women. We are still unsure what causes gestational diabetes but it doesn’t guarantee that the woman will have diabetes after the birth of the baby. Researchers hypothesis that since there are so many hormones at play during pregnancy that sometimes the mother can get insulin resistance while the child develops inside. 

4. Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a condition of elevated blood sugars but the blood sugar levels are not high enough to be considered in the diabetic range. This is a warning sign, if you don’t start incorporating better lifestyle habits you may become diabetic. 

Effects of Diabetes

Long-term complications of diabetes are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. This causes prolonged damage to the blood vessels and organs, the ones that are affected the most are the heart, brain, eyes, and kidneys.

Heart

Over time, high blood sugar can damage blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart. People with diabetes are also more likely to have other conditions that raise the risk for heart disease

The most common form of heart disease is coronary artery disease. It develops over time as the vessels fill with plaque. Atherosclerosis occurs causing a narrowing of arteries reducing oxygen to the heart causing a weakening and straining of the heart muscle leading to heart attacks and strokes [4]

Eyes

Diabetes complication that affects the eyes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. 

Diabetic retinopathy occurs when the tiny blood vessels in the eye leak blood and fluids causing the retinal tissue to swell causing a decrease in vision [5]

Brain

Research has shown that there is a link between diabetes and dementia. They don’t have an exact rationale behind it but many things it has to do with the heightened levels of inflammation diabetics have. 

Even though your brain is responsible for only about 2% of your body’s weight but consumes about 25% of glucose. Some study’s show a reduction of brain volume of people with type 2 diabetes. 

Nervous system

Over time diabetes damages blood vessels and nerves. This ultimately affects how your nerves send signals and information. 

Depending on the affected nerves, diabetic neuropathy symptoms can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels, and heart [6]

Kidneys

When our bodies digest the protein we eat, the process creates waste products. In the kidneys, millions of tiny blood vessels (capillaries) with even tinier holes in them act as filters.

As blood flows through the blood vessels, small molecules such as waste products squeeze through the holes. These waste products become part of the urine. Useful substances, such as protein and red blood cells, are too big to pass through the holes in the filter and stay in the blood.

Diabetes can damage this system. High levels of blood sugar make the kidneys filter too much blood. All this extra work is hard on the filters. After many years, they start to leak and useful protein is lost in the urine.

In time, the stress of overwork causes the kidneys to lose their filtering ability. Waste products then start to build up in the blood. Finally, the kidneys fail. This failure is called ESRD [7].

Pancreatic Transplant

Impact of pancreas transplantation on the patient survival – an analysis of the Japanese pancreas transplant registry 

Results: 

  • The survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years on the waiting list were 98.4%, 90.3%, and 78.1%, respectively, while those after transplantation were significantly improved (p = 0.029) at 100%, 97.5%, and 88.9%, respectively.
  • Furthermore, the survival rates of patients waiting for the simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) at 1, 5, and 10 years were 98.2%, 89.4%, and 75.4%, respectively, while those after SPK were also significantly improved (p = 0.026) at 100%, 94.6%, and 88.8%.
  • The multivariable analysis revealed that the duration of diabetes before surgery was the only independent risk factor (hazard ratio = 1.095, p = 0.012) that affected the patient survival after SPK. 

Conclusion:

Pancreas transplantation was found to improve the life prognosis of patients with type 1 diabetes, especially those with end-stage renal failure waiting for SPK [8].

Transplant Process

The surgeon makes an incision down the center of the abdomen. Next, the surgeon places the donor pancreas on the lower right side of the abdomen attached to the nearby blood vessels.

If the pancreas is taken from a deceased donor, then the surgeon removes the pancreas along with a small section of the small intestine.

Whereas, if the pancreas is taken from a living donor, the surgeon takes a portion of the body and the tail of the pancreas.

The surgeon generally connects the new pancreas to your intestines so its digestive juices can drain. The recipient’s existing pancreas usually remains in their body.

Sources:

https://www.medicinenet.com/what_is_the_success_rate_of_a_pancreas_transplant/article.htm
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444
https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes
https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html

To know more about the effects of diabetes, check out the full video of this episode here 👇👇👇

SHOW NOTES:

0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
1:54 Episode Introduction
2:10 What is Diabetes?
3:50 Role of Glucose
4:06 Role of Insulin
6:13 Diabetes Facts
12:50 Types of Diabetes
18:00 Effects of Diabetes
35:1 Pancreatic Transplant