EP 183: How to Optimize Your Body with Aidan Muir

EP 183: How to Optimize Your Body with Aidan Muir

How to Optimize Your Body with Aidan Muir

Optimize your body through nutrition and you will live longer and healthier. Our bodies are naturally amazing; we heal even if we experience trauma, injuries, or wounds. We can go through some of the most grueling physical activities and can still recover within a few days. But to achieve all that, it would be best to take care of our bodies the best way we can. 

Athletes, in particular, are almost superhuman. They go through intense physical training, and stress, and experience brutal injuries. But how do they stay healthy? Are their bodies different from ours? Do they recover differently than us? 

Nurses also experience stress and physical exhaustion. We may not be athletes, but our bodies also go through all stress and trauma. Nutrition plays a big role in keeping up with our work. It is why it is essential for us to stay fit and eat healthily.

Our Guest

In this episode, we would like to introduce you to Aiden Muir. Aidan is a dietitian with a role split relatively evenly between seeing clients and creating content. He has a broad range of areas of interest, but he mainly sees clients in sports nutrition (particularly strength athletes), weight loss, and gastrointestinal disorders.

We talk about gut health, how to build muscle, and how to optimize your body while working nights. 

QUESTIONS FOR GUEST

The questions below are some we’d like to tackle. We often go off-topic, so we don’t expect to hit them all. If you have any ideas, please let us know.

Looking forward to our conversation!

These are the questions you had in Calendly. We’ll go off your questions and wherever else our conversation goes.

  1. Can you give us a background about yourself?
    1. How did you get involved and find a passion for sports nutrition, weight loss, and gastrointestinal disorders?
  2. As a nutritionist, what kind of diet do you follow, and is there a specific reason(s) for it?
  3. How do you develop a good relationship with food?
  4. Are there different nutritional requirements for men and women?
    1. When it comes to fat loss, is it any different?
    2. When it comes to building muscle, is it any different?
    3. How do you find your metabolic rate? Is there a way to get a rough estimate without having to o through tests?
  5. Should people be eating at night?
    1. A good portion of our audience works the night shift. Should people eat throughout the night while working? Or should the day be limited to a particular hour?
      1. Does our body absorb food differently at night, or does it have different nutritional requirements?
    2. What foods do you recommend for someone who struggles not to eat a night?
      1. What foods, in general, do you recommend, and what should people avoid eating while working nights? 
  6. Do you think intermittent fasting is a good idea for someone that works nights?
    1. What is your general perspective on Intermittent fasting?
  7. When it comes to building muscle, what are some of the critical concepts of hypertrophy and nutrition?
    1. Do you believe in body recomposition, and what is the proper approach?
      1. Specifically, as someone that trains marital arts 4-5 times a week and weightlifters 3-4 times a week, how could I maximize my nutrition to not lose weight, gain muscle and lean out?
  8. Creatine, how much do you need to get a performance boost, and how consistently do you need to take it?
    1. Do you recommend any sports supplements?
  9. Gut health is a big trending topic; we know that specific hormones are derived from the gut, what is the key to a happy, healthy gut?
  10. There is a big push for everything plant-based. What is your opinion on meat? 
    1. Some studies show meat protein’s superiority over plant-based proteins. Is there a difference? 
    2. I’ve read studies stating that meat proteins are more bioavailable, digestible, and have higher anabolic potential than plant-based proteins.

ENDING QUESTIONS

Before we end the show, we have one last question we like to ask all our guests. If you had the opportunity to have a Cup of coffee with anybody one last time, who would it be & why? 

Follow Aidan on Instagram for more tips and tricks so you can optimize your body at @aidan_the_dietitian and for online consultations @idealnutrition__.

You can also listen to his Podcast at The Ideal Nutrition Podcast  or visit his website at https://www.idealnutrition.com.au/ for more information.

Here’s why nutrition matters, click here and watch the full episode 👇

TIME STAMPS: 

00:00 Introduction
01:45 How did you get involved and find a passion for sports nutrition?
04:03 What types of diets have you experimented with?
04:31 How much protein can your body tolerate?
06:25 How to develop a proper relationship with food?
08:49 How do beliefs play a role in nutrition?
11:25 Difference in Marco nutrition between Males and Females
15:08 Nutrition for night shift workers
17:21 What snacks should you be consuming?
18:32 Outcomes of Intermittent fasting?
21:24 Muscle building and intermittent fasting
25:19 Muscular hypertrophy and body recomp
28:28 How to figure out your metabolic needs?
34:18 What should be on your plate for health and vitality?
37:10 Key to a healthy gut microbe
40:11 Supplement recommendations
42:04 What is creatine?
47:07 How long do results last from creatine?
48:47 Nutrition Do’s & Dont’s
52:47 Wrapping up the episode

 

 

EP 181: 7 Foods That Help Nurses Gain Energy During a 12-hour Shift

EP 181: 7 Foods That Help Nurses Gain Energy During a 12-hour Shift

7 Foods That Help Nurses Gain Energy During a 12-hour Shift

Our diet plays a big role in keeping our bodies in shape. As nurses, we owe our bodies healthy and nutritious food. When we eat a well-balanced diet, we have more energy to do our job. It is why it’s best to know the 7 foods that help nurses gain energy during a 12-hour shift. Eating the right food will give you the best energy and avoid the stress that a 12-hour shift can give. 

In this episode, we will talk about the 7 best foods you can eat to keep up with your long shifts. We also had the chance to talk to Alandra Segoviano. She is a writer for wellandgood.com and is interested in the lifestyle of a nurse.  She is curious about what foods we eat on shift and why.  So if you are as curious as her, then this episode is for you. 

Diet vs. Lifestyle

Temporary Diets don’t work. You must find the food you like to eat and eliminate all the process stuff.

People see the results of diets because they just end up eliminating calories. Any diet will work if you just decrease the number of calories; everyone will find success in that. 

Intermittent fasting is beneficial, especially on nights. 

  • Working all night doesn’t mean you have to eat all night.
  • 16-8 is the one we usually do. We stop eating at midnight. 
  • Different associations with food. It becomes more of a fuel

Benefits of Intermittent fasting:

  1. Increases metabolism
  • In intermittent fasting, your metabolism does not decrease because fasting is short-term.
  • The way intermittent fasting indirectly boosts your metabolism is through norepinephrine. During acute starvation and short-term calorie negligence, your body increases norepinephrine levels. Norepinephrine causes an increase in the release of glucose. 

2. Immune function

  • Autophagy is the process of programmed cell death. It is also the ability to find damaged cells and destroy them.
  • On the immunological level, it is also breaking down white blood cells for resources to rebuild. White blood cells are a general term to associate all our immune cells. Our body naturally breaks down damaged cells and uses those components to create new mature white blood cells for the future.
  • Decreases oxidative stress and inflammation. Long-term effects of oxidation and inflammation increase the risks of developing cancer and other chronic diseases. A decrease in chronic disease, in turn, helps decrease the immune system’s workload.

3. Brain function

  • You take the work and time needed to consume food and put that effort into brain function and mental processing.
  • Increase a hormone called BDNF. Studies show that The chemical Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is decreased in depression and other brain issues. An increase in BDNF can make you feel better on a neurological level.
  • Builds self-control

4. Liquids 

  • You need to drink more water. This especially helps with hunger and craving. 

Food

Meat, including seafood – simple, protein keeps you fuller for longer. It’s the building block of life. 

  • Meat protein vs Plant-based
    • Research shows that meat protein 
      • Meat resulted in a more significant gain in whole-body net protein balance above baseline than the ounce equivalents of plant-based protein food sources. The improvement in whole-body net protein balance was due to increased protein synthesis with all the animal protein sources. In contrast, the egg and pork groups also suppressed protein breakdown compared to plant protein sources [1].
      • Steak, chicken, beef, pork, salmon, and shrimp. 

Fruits

    • Berries
      • Taste the best. Lower in calories and lower in carbs
  • Antioxidants
    • Help keep free radicals under control and helps decrease inflammation.
    • blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries have the highest antioxidant activity of commonly consumed fruits, next to pomegranates.

High in fiber

High nutrition content

      • Vitamins like C, minerals, Magnesium

Vegetables

  • The consistent vegetables we eat are mushrooms, potatoes (sweet and regular), onions, swiss chard, and greens.
  • Explore different vegetables and find ones you can consistently eat.
  • Basic building blocks for life. 
  • The primary source of all major vitamins and minerals for our body to function and present inflammation.

Greek yogurt and peanut butter

    • Unsweetened Greek yogurt with some fruits and granola
  • Great for gut support
      • Probiotics. Make sure it says Live and Active Cultures (LAC)
  • Bone and muscle health
    • Protein, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.

Oatmeal

    • Oatmeal with milk and butter, not water. 
    • Good source of fiber, protein, and antioxidants. 
  • Beta-glucans
    • Beta-glucans have been tested to lower blood glucose concentrations and decrease hyperlipidemia and hypertension [2].
    • It might prevent the body from absorbing cholesterol from food. They might also stimulate the immune system by increasing chemicals that prevent infections.
      • Essentially helps neutrophils travel to the site of infection faster and improves their potential to eliminate the bacteria they find there.

RX Bars

  • 3 eggwhites
  • 6 almonds 
  • 4 cashews
  • 2 Dates 

Recently – easy-to-eat salads with a choice of meat, romaine lettuce, cucumber, tomato, sprouts, avocado, red onion 

Primal Kitchen dressings – Cleanest dressing, based on olive and avocado oils. All are healthy foods that help nurses last their 12-hour shifts.

Learn what foods you can eat during your long shifts by watching the full episode here 👇

TIME STAMPS:

00:00 Introduction
01:44 Peters nightshift nurse life
03:42 Night shift eating pattern
06:44 What veggies and fruits for a nursing shift
10:09 Best protein powders
12:01 Water Intake as a nurse
16:21 Truth about dieting
17:34 Matt’s daily diet
19:55 Easy nursing snacks for nurses
24:05 How to prevent carb crashes and feeling tired
28:17 4 main food categories for good health
29:25 Avoid sugary foods at work
30:46 Caffeinate properly as a nurse
32:49 When do you get used to night shift?

 

Are you Eating Cancer-Causing Glyphosate in Your Diet?

Are you Eating Cancer-Causing Glyphosate in Your Diet?

Are you Eating Cancer-Causing Glyphosate in Your Diet?

There is cancer-causing glyphosate in your diet. You might not know how harmful it is until it is too late. What is it anyway? And how can it affect our body? Read on for more.

What is Glyphosate?

A Swiss chemist working for a pharmaceutical company, Dr. Henri Martin, discovered glyphosate in 1950. Since no pharmaceutical applications were identified the molecule was sold to a series of other companies. and samples were tested for several possible ends uses.
Glyphosate is an herbicide. It is applied to the leaves of plants to kill both broadleaf plants and grasses. The sodium salt form of glyphosate regulates plant growth and ripens specific crops.
This chemical became registered for use in the U.S. in 1974. It is now one of the most used herbicides in the United States. People apply it in agriculture and forestry, lawns and gardens, and weeds in industrial areas.

How does glyphosate work? 

Cancer-causing Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide, meaning it will kill most plants. It works by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme. The shikimic acid pathway plays a role in synthesizing three amino acids. These are phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.

Glyphosate lawsuits 

“Glyphosate has a 40-year history of safe and effective use. The overwhelming conclusion of experts worldwide … is that glyphosate is safe to use,” Monsanto said. He was ignorant of evidence building against the chemical.
 
the roundup-related lawsuits have dogged Bayer since it acquired the top-selling brand. It is as part of its $63 billion sales of agricultural seeds and pesticides maker Monsanto in 2018.
 
The company has spent billions of dollars to settle around 96,000 Roundup cases of about 125,000[1].

What do regulatory agencies in the USA say?

In 2015, a committee of scientists working for the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the WHO evaluated studies and reported that glyphosate is probably carcinogenic.
 
The latest from the Environmental Working Group (EWG), Food Democracy Now. The Detox Project tested various products for glyphosate. They found dangerous levels of glyphosate in everyday American foods.

Glyphosate Products to Avoid

  • Granola by Quaker, KIND, Back to Nature, Nature Valley
  • Instant oats by Giant, Quaker, Umpqua, Market Pantry
  • Whole oats by Quaker, Bob’s Red Mill, Nature’s Path, Whole Foods
  • Cereal by Kashi, Kellogg’s, including Lucky Charms and Cheerios
  • Snack bars by Quaker, KIND, Nature Valley, Kellogg’s
  • Orange juice by Tropicana, Minute Maid, Signature Farms, Kirkland
  • Crackers, including Cheez-Its, Ritz, Triscuits, Goldfish
  • Cookies by Annie’s, Kashi, and Nabisco (Oreos)
  • Chips by Stacy’s, Lay’s, Doritos, Fritos

An alarming study looked into Pesticides in Mississippi compared to air and rain between 1995 and 2007. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in ≥75% of air and rain samples in 2007 [2].

How do you avoid glyphosate exposure?

The best way to avoid eating cancer-causing glyphosate is to grow your own plants, vegetables, and fruits.  If you don’t have time, source local produce from a farmer’s market you trust.
 
The Detox Project uses an FDA-registered food testing lab to test for toxic chemicals. Thye recently launched a “Glyphosate Residue Free” label. This way companies can apply to certify their products. Until it rolls out more, you are more likely (but not guaranteed) to avoid exposure by opting for foods labeled “Certified Organic.”

Products that are verified glyphosate free by the Detox project: https://detoxproject.org/certification/glyphosate-residue-free/certified-products/

The extent of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed research articles from 10 leading nutrition-related journals in 2018

We all know that evidence supports the food industry’s involvement in nutrition research or agendas. However, food industry involvement in nutrition research has not been systematically explored. 

This study, published on December 16th, 2020, aimed to identify the extent of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed articles. It includes leading nutrition-related journals that are examined thoroughly. The goal is to find food industries that support the industry’s interests. 

No study has comprehensively examined the extent and nature of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed research.

The study reviewed the top 10 most cited nutrition and dietetics-related journals. The evaluation of food industry involvement was evaluated based on author affiliations, funding sources, declarations of interest, or other acknowledgments. 

Principal research findings from articles with food industry involvement, and a random sample of articles without food industry involvement, were categorized according to the extent to which they supported relevant food industry interests. 

The Results 

Of 1,461, 196 (13.4%) articles reported food industry involvement. The extent of food industry involvement varied by journal, with The Journal of Nutrition (28.3%) having the highest and Pediatric Obesity (3.8%) having the lowest proportion of industry involvement.

Food industry involvement spanned several industry sectors, with processed food manufacturing, dietary supplement manufacturing, and dairy most often represented.

Processed food manufacturers were involved in most articles (77/196, 39.3%). Of articles with food industry involvement, 55.6% reported findings favorable to relevant food industry interests, compared to 9.7% of articles without food industry involvement.

The journals included in this study:

  • Advances in Nutrition
  • Clinical Nutrition
  • International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • International Journal of Obesity
  • Nutrition Research Reviews 
  • Nutrition Reviews, 
  • Journal of Obesity  
  • Pediatric Obesity
  • The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • The Journal of Nutrition.

Future thoughts

Future studies should investigate nutrition-related articles from journals with both nutrition and non-nutrition focus (including, for example, journals in medicine and public health)

Get to know more about glyphosate by watching our full episode here 👇

TIME STAMPS:

00:00 Intro
00:41 Plugs
02:44 Episode Introduction
04:28 About Glyphosate
05:23 How does glyphosate work?
08:05 Glyphosate lawsuits
11:27 What do regulatory agencies in the USA say?
15:43 Glyphosate Products to Avoid
16:39 How do you avoid glyphosate exposure?
18:04 Glyphosate traces in soil, water, and air
21:16 Being vigilant in avoiding Cancer-Causing Glyphosate
23:56 The involvement of the food industry
8:58 Science and spirituality
31:07 The Results
35:25 Huge funding to influence an agenda

Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle growth and hypertrophy are essential when you want to stay fit. Everyone has muscles, but many want them to be a bit bigger. Did you know there are over 600 muscles in your body? Muscles are responsible for actions like movement, digestion, circulation, and respiration. There are different muscles for each job in the body. 

Injuries, diseases, and various disorders affect the way your muscles function. These issues can be muscle pain spasms or more severe like paralysis and cardiomyopathy. 

Living a healthy lifestyle through good nutrition and adequate exercise prevents early deterioration of muscle and function and improves endurance, size, and strength.

Muscles

Muscles’ function is to contract and relax. It doesn’t matter if that muscle is voluntary or involuntary. It is going to contract in one-way shape or another. 

The somatic nervous system is responsible for the voluntary movement of skeletal muscle, while the autonomic nervous system is responsible for involuntary action like that of smooth muscle [1].

3 Different Types of Muscle Tissue

There are three different types of muscle tissues. Each type of muscle also functions differently within different areas of the body. These are: 

  • Skeletal: As part of the musculoskeletal system, these muscles work with your bones, tendons, and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones all over your body. Together, they support the weight of your body and help you move. You control these voluntary muscles. Some muscle fibers contract quickly and use short bursts of energy (fast-twitch muscles). Others move slowly, such as your back muscles that help with posture.
  • Cardiac: These muscles line the heart walls. They help your heart pump blood that travels through your cardiovascular system. You don’t control cardiac muscles. The heart tells them when to contract.
  • Smooth: These muscles line the insides of organs such as the bladder, stomach, and intestines. Smooth muscles play an essential role in many-body systems. These include the female reproductive system, male reproductive system, urinary system, and respiratory system. Different types of muscles work without you having to think about them. They do essential jobs like moving waste through your intestines and helping your lungs expand when you breathe.

Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal muscles consist of flexible muscle fibers that range from less than half an inch to just over three inches in diameter. These fibers usually span the length of the muscle. The fibers contract or tightens, allowing the muscles to move bones so you can perform lots of different movements.

Skeletal Muscles Structure

Each muscle can contain thousands of fibers. Different types of sheaths, or coverings, surround the fibers:

  • Epimysium: The outermost layer of tissue surrounding the entire muscle.
  • Perimysium: The middle layer surrounding bundles of muscle fibers.
  • Endomysium: The innermost layer surrounding individual muscle fibers.

Actin and myosin are both proteins that are found in every type of muscle tissue. Thick myosin filaments and thin actin filaments work together to generate muscle contractions and movement. 

Myosin is a type of molecular motor that converts chemical energy released from ATP into mechanical energy. 

This mechanical energy is then used to pull the actin filaments along, causing muscle fibers to contract and, thus, generate movement.

What does skeletal muscle look like?

Skeletal muscle fibers are red and white. They look striated, or striped, so they’re often called striated muscles. Cardiac muscles are also striated, but smooth muscles aren’t.

How healthy is skeletal muscle?

Although skeletal muscles typically make up roughly 35% of your body weight, this can vary from person to person. Men have about 36% more skeletal muscle mass than women. People who are tall or overweight also tend to have higher muscle mass. Muscle mass decreases with age in both men and women.

Hypertrophy

In simple terms, hypertrophy just means “to make bigger.” It is the opposite of atrophy which is to make smaller. When we talk about hypertrophy in muscles, we mean muscle growth. Muscle growth and hypertrophy is the primary goal of why people work out and train. 

When you talk about muscular hypertrophy, it is different from just gaining strength. Although with hypertrophy comes more strength, it is a different concept and different mode of work than strength training [2].

  • Hypertrophy is done to increase the size of a muscle
  • Strengthening is done to increase the ability to produce force

2 Different Types of Hypertrophy

1. Myofibrillar hypertrophy

  • This type of muscular hypertrophy involves increasing the number of protein filament bundles known as myofibrils. Myofibrils help the muscle contract and relax. Increasing myofibrils boost muscular strength. With myofibril hypertrophy, the muscle also becomes denser [3].
  • Growth of muscle contraction parts.

2. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy

  • You can also increase the volume of fluid within the muscle. This is called sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. The fluid provides the energy the muscle needs during weight training. Similar to how adding water to a balloon makes the balloon grow, more fluid in the muscle makes it look bigger [4].
  • Increased muscle glycogen storage.

How to Build Muscle?

There are many ways to muscle growth and hypertrophy and strengthen muscle, but we want to focus on how to maximize hypertrophy. 

1. Diet and Sleep 

You need proper fuel and rest to build muscle. There has always been a debate between carbs, proteins, and fats.  With so many diets out there, you should not solely rely on one of them. 

The main thing to always keep in mind when it comes to the human diet is that we need all the macronutrients. It would help if you ate carbs, proteins, and fats. Neglecting any one of those will directly impact not only your muscle growth but your overall health.

Proteins get broken down into amino acids that are the building blocks of all our cells. Carbs are your body’s primary source of fuel. Fats are required for hormone function. Many studies show the benefit of eating a higher amount of protein when trying to build muscle. 

Research indicates that achieving muscle hypertrophy requires balancing muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. Additionally, consuming protein within 24 hours of weight training can provide a positive net balance. 

This net balance supports muscle growth. Follow your workouts with higher protein meals or shakes to give the body the nutrients to achieve maximum hypertrophy.

Carbs are beneficial for:

  • Carbs prevent muscle weakness
  • It can prevent muscle degradation
  • Carbs help muscles recover from exercise

Recommended Protein Intake for Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

  • Individuals in Energy Balance
  • Consume ~0.4 g/kg body mass (i.e., 0.24 plus 0.06 with protein added to account for the influence of other macronutrients in meals and protein quality), to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following a period of rest or exhaustive resistance exercise.
  • Spacing protein-containing meals ~3–5 h throughout the day maximizes MPS rates over the course of a 12 h (i.e., waking) period.
  • Practice pre-sleep protein ingestion (1–3 h prior to sleep) to offset declines in MPS that would occur during an overnight fasting period.
  • To maximize muscle protein accretion with resistance exercise, daily protein intakes should be ~1.6 g/kg/day and up to 2.2 g/kg/day. This intake can be achieved by ingesting 3 meals, each containing ~0.53 g/kg protein, or 4 meals containing ~0.4g/kg protein.
  • Individuals in Energy Restriction
  • Daily protein requirements are greater than they are during periods of energy balance to promote the maintenance or increase in lean body mass.
  • Resistance exercise should be performed during energy restriction to promote the retention of lean body mass if desired.
  • For athletes cutting weight over an extended period, high-quality protein sources such as whey and casein, or a blend of each, should be chosen to optimize appetite control and ensure dietary compliance.
  • Protein intakes of ~2.3–3.1 g/kg/day have been advocated to promote leaner body mass retention during weight loss. Exercise-naive adults who have a more significant body fat percentage should aim to achieve the lower end of this range. However, leaner individuals with resistance-training experience who are more vulnerable to losing lean body mass during energy restriction should aim for the higher end of this range [5].

2. Exercise

With exercise, muscle growth and hypertrophy are induced. What causes it is “as calcium is released in higher quantities with each contraction induced by the neuron, calcium binds to calmodulin, which activates calmodulin kinases (CaMKs), and in turn, activates Akt, which activates protein synthesis via mTOR and the inhibition of glycogen synthase pathways.”

Muscle growth is achieved when a combination of things occurs: muscle damage and repair, mechanical tension through stretch and force, and the build-up of metabolites like lactate, hydrogen ions, creatine, and others. 

Metabolite accumulation can occur as lactate, hydrogen ions (lowering pH), and phosphate molecules accumulate within the cell. The collection of these, and likely others (like creatine), metabolites in the cell shows an increased expression of Insulin Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1).

This increases the proliferation of satellite cells and increases protein synthesis via the Akt pathway. Also, the increase in growth hormone (GH) further increases the release of IGF and the release of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) for different effects on satellite cell recruitment.

How Muscles Work During Exercise

To be able to return for another bout of exercise, the trauma to the muscle leads the cell to release calcium (likely due to damage to the sarcoplasmic reticulum) into the surrounding extracellular area; this release of calcium leads to the activation of an immune response.

As soon as one hour after this event, neutrophils go through phagocytosis and clean up the debris of dislodged and broken organelle proteins caused by the stress put on the myocyte. 

24-48 hours after myocyte damage, macrophages are the dominant immune cells finishing phagocytosis and releasing cytokines and growth factors to activate other immune clean-up cells and the repair process.

These cytokines, Interleukin-1, 6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are the regulators of inflammatory response and communicate more or less the need for further necrosis and inflammation between immune cells. 

Growth factors such as growth hormone (HGH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are released to begin the repair process.

Main Concepts and Strategies When Exercising

To accomplish muscle growth and hypertrophy you have to induce some kind of physical activity. The main concepts and strategies to think about when creating a program or just in exercise are:

1. Engage in strength training regularly.

You can’t just work a muscle once and expect it to grow. It needs to be stressed repeatedly over time. Resistance training at least three times per week can provide the tension necessary for the muscle to adapt and grow. Constantly doing the same exercise over again is an excellent place to start. Over time repeating the same workout does lead to fewer results, so it is essential to switch up the routine.  

2. Increase resistance over time.

Starting with lighter weights gives the muscle time to adjust to a new weight training program. But once that weight becomes easy to lift, it needs to be increased if the goal is hypertrophy. The general rule is to increase your weight by about 5-10% to prevent injury.

3. Aim to overload the muscle or muscle group.

If you walk out of your weight training sessions feeling as if you could go through the sets and reps again, you’re not overloading your muscle enough. While you don’t want to go to the point of pain, growing muscle requires a certain level of overload. During your workout, aim to push your muscle as much as possible while still being safe.

4. Lift heavy for higher reps.

A hypertrophy workout involves lifting fairly heavy weights. You also want to shoot for higher reps than if your goal was strength. Again, you have to overload the muscles to a certain extent if you want them to grow [6].

5. Sets and repetitions.

Start muscle growth and hypertrophy with two to three sets of ten to 15 reps, completing repetitions at a manageable but challenging weight. So if you are doing three sets of 12 repetitions, the weight you use should be heavy enough that you cannot do more than 12 reps, but not so heavy that you cannot get to 12. If you know your one-rep max and have the basics of working out down, you should be looking to lift between 65%-75% of your 1RM for eight to 12 reps for three to six sets.

6. Reduce your rest periods.

The rest time between sets changes based on whether the goal is to increase muscle size or strength. The recommended rest period is generally between two and five minutes for strength increases. This period is shortened to 30 to 90 seconds to increase muscle size.

7. Allow adequate time for muscle recovery.

Getting enough recovery time is critical to building bigger muscles. It is during this recovery that muscle damage is repaired. Therefore, if you don’t allow enough time for this repair to occur, not only will muscles not reach their maximum size, but you also risk injuring them. Allow 24 to 48 hours before working for the same muscle group again [7]

Muscle Soreness

Many people have sore muscles after working out. The soreness results from tiny tears (microtears) occurring when you put stress on a muscle. Usually, muscle soreness sets in a day or two after vigorous exercise. This condition is why providers call this condition delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).

The muscle tissue becomes inflamed as the muscles repair themselves and the tiny tears heal. Your muscles recover within a few days, and the inflammation goes away. With continued exercise, the muscle tissue tears and rebuilds again and again.

To watch the full episode on Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy, click here for more 👇

TIME STAMPS:

00:00 Intro
00:49 Plugs
02:11 Episode Introduction
06:05 Different types of muscle tissue
07:20 The skeletal muscle structure
11:48 What is hypertrophy?
15:55 How to build muscles and maximize hypertrophy?
18:43 Building muscles: Carbohydrates
20:33 Building muscles: Protein
24:42 Protein recommendations for building muscles
29:32 A Scientific explanation of how hypertrophy works
34:06 Things you can do to maximize hypertrophy.

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

Can caffeine affect your body? The short answer is yes. In this episode and honor of Caffeine Awareness month, we will discuss how caffeine affects your body and is effects after consuming it for a long time.

Most Americans use caffeine daily but don’t even know what it is or what caffeine exactly does. About 85% of people in the US consume at least one caffeine beverage/per day [1]. 

What is Caffeine, and Can Caffeine Affect Your Body?

When someone says caffeine, we immediately think of coffee. And while coffee has caffeine, it’s not it. Caffeine is a bitter-tasting, white, and odorless powder. It is naturally found in the fruit, leaves, and beans of coffee, cacao, and guarana plants. The truth is that caffeine is added to almost all kinds of food and drinks. 

It is also a Central Nervous System Stimulant and one of the most common psychoactive drugs used globally. In addition to that, caffeine is the only legal, unregulated psychoactive drug. 

So, the next time you wonder why you are addicted to caffeine, it’s because of its psychoactive properties. 

How Caffeine Acts in the Body

The way caffeine works are thought to be mediated by several mechanisms: 

  • Antagonism of adenosine receptors
  • The inhibition of phosphodiesterase
  • Release of calcium from intracellular stores
  • The antagonism of benzodiazepine receptors

The most common one is that it blocks the action of adenosine on its receptors and prevents the drowsiness associated with it.

Adenosine Antagonist 

When a person is awake and alert, small amounts of adenosine are present in CNS. Over time, adenosine accumulates in the neuronal synapse by being constantly awake. 

Once adenosine increases, it binds and activates the receptors found on specific CNS neurons. 

When activated, the adenosine receptors produce a cellular response that increases drowsiness. 

What Happens to Adenosine?

  • When caffeine is consumed, it antagonizes the adenosine receptors. Caffeine prevents adenosine from activating the receptor by blocking the receptor site. Therefore, caffeine temporarily prevents or relieves drowsiness and maintains or restores alertness [2].
  • Caffeine also increases energy metabolism throughout the brain but can also decrease cerebral blood flow, which induces relative brain hypoperfusion [3].

Due to the blocking of adenosine inhibitory effects through its receptors, caffeine indirectly affects the release of the following [4]:

  •  norepinephrine
  • dopamine
  • acetylcholine
  • serotonin
  • glutamate
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  • neuropeptides 

Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase

Phosphodiesterase inhibition prevents the ability to break down cAMP and cGMP. The levels inside the cell increase, therefore, leading to a decrease in calcium levels in the cell. It leads to vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation [5].

Caffeine is a vasoconstrictor and works mainly in your heart and brain. However, it vasodilates your peripheral and bronchial vessels as well.

Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storage

Caffeine affect the body by taking calcium from the bone and introducing it into the bloodstream. Most studies show that this amount is not substantial enough to cause osteoporosis, and the calcium loss can be replaced by adding some milk. 

Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist 

Studies show that caffeine has weak antagonistic properties at the benzodiazepine receptor sites. The reaction, however, can be due to adenosine suppression [6]. 

SNS vs. PNS

The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) controls homeostasis. The PNS maintains the body at rest and is responsible for the “rest and digest” functions. 

Similarly, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls the body’s responses to a perceived threat and is responsible for the “fight or flight” response. 

Effects of Caffeine on the Body

Caffeine’s direct effects on the body are due to the inactivation of adenosine receptors. It leads to greater stimulation of the SNS, causing various effects. Here are the most common effects of caffeine on the body: 

Increase in alertness

  • The stimulating effects of caffeine cause alertness right away. In addition to that, it can also temporarily relieve drowsiness and fatigue.

Decreased suicide risk – check with your doctor

  • One study found that the mood-enhancing effects of caffeine were linked to a percent lower risk of suicide in participants.

Increased heart rate and blood pressure

  • Caffeine affects your body by resulting in a rapid heartbeat. In that case, this may be a concern if you have a preexisting heart issue. You may notice arrhythmias whenever you have caffeine.
  • It can also temporarily raise your blood pressure. The effects may be especially noticeable if you have caffeine during or right before exercise or other physical activity.

Confusion

  • Too much caffeine can overstimulate the brain, leading to confusion or the inability to focus on one task.

Headache

  • A headache can occur from either too much caffeine or as a symptom of caffeine withdrawal. But specific amounts can help with headaches.

Irritability

  • When your body is used to caffeine, you can experience irritability as a symptom of withdrawal.

Heartburn

  • The acidity of certain caffeinated products, like coffee and soda, may cause heartburn.

Diarrhea

  • Caffeine can also help regulate your bowel movement, but too much intake can cause opposite effects like diarrhea.

Fertility/Pregnancy

  • Some women who consume too much caffeine might experience difficulties getting pregnant. If you’re trying to get pregnant, It’s best not to consume more than 300 mg per day.
  • Consuming too much caffeine affects your body during pregnancy, which may cause miscarriage and developmental issues in newborns. 
  • It’s recommended that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. It equals about one 12-ounce cup of coffee.

Bones

  • Caffeine prevents calcium absorption in the bones, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. As you get older, your bones may break more easily.

Urination

  • Frequent urination may be experienced when you consume too much caffeine. Caffeine affects the body as a diuretic, and long-term use of high amounts of caffeine may increase bladder instability. It can worsen the risk for those already experiencing bladder problems.

Jitters

  • Caffeine can give you the jitters if you’re not used to it. If you have an anxiety disorder or sleep disorder, caffeine may make it worse.

Metabolization of Caffeine 

  • Caffeine from coffee or other beverages is absorbed by the small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion and distributed throughout all bodily tissues.
  • ​​Peak blood concentration is reached within 1–2 hours.
  • Caffeine’s biological half liver varies from individual to individual, roughly between 2 and 7 hrs.
  • It can also be absorbed rectally. However, the rectal route has a 30% lesser absorption rate [7].

The FDA has cited 400 milligrams a day for healthy adults—about four or five cups of coffee—as an amount not generally associated with complications.

To watch the full Episode 92, click here for more 👇

TIME STAMPS:

0:00 Intro
0:50 Plugs
2:16 Episode Intro
6:07 The only unregulated psychoactive drug
10:19 How Caffeine Acts in the Body
10:25 Adenosine Antagonist
13:03 Caffeine decreases cerebral blood flow
15:39 Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase
16:29 Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storages
18:52 Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist
23:13 A possible reason why you are irritable
25:00 Effects of Caffeine
25:10 Increase in alertness
29:18 Tips on setting your body clock
33:07 Estimating time when to take caffeine
39:32 Frequent urination
39:58 Too much caffeine can cause diarrhea
40:41 Decreased suicide risk
46:33 Caffeine as medicine