Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

Muscle growth and hypertrophy are essential when you want to stay fit. Everyone has muscles, but many want them to be a bit bigger. Did you know there are over 600 muscles in your body? Muscles are responsible for actions like movement, digestion, circulation, and respiration. There are different muscles for each job in the body. 

Injuries, diseases, and various disorders affect the way your muscles function. These issues can be muscle pain spasms or more severe like paralysis and cardiomyopathy. 

Living a healthy lifestyle through good nutrition and adequate exercise prevents early deterioration of muscle and function and improves endurance, size, and strength.

Muscles

Muscles’ function is to contract and relax. It doesn’t matter if that muscle is voluntary or involuntary. It is going to contract in one-way shape or another. 

The somatic nervous system is responsible for the voluntary movement of skeletal muscle, while the autonomic nervous system is responsible for involuntary action like that of smooth muscle [1].

3 Different Types of Muscle Tissue

There are three different types of muscle tissues. Each type of muscle also functions differently within different areas of the body. These are: 

  • Skeletal: As part of the musculoskeletal system, these muscles work with your bones, tendons, and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones all over your body. Together, they support the weight of your body and help you move. You control these voluntary muscles. Some muscle fibers contract quickly and use short bursts of energy (fast-twitch muscles). Others move slowly, such as your back muscles that help with posture.
  • Cardiac: These muscles line the heart walls. They help your heart pump blood that travels through your cardiovascular system. You don’t control cardiac muscles. The heart tells them when to contract.
  • Smooth: These muscles line the insides of organs such as the bladder, stomach, and intestines. Smooth muscles play an essential role in many-body systems. These include the female reproductive system, male reproductive system, urinary system, and respiratory system. Different types of muscles work without you having to think about them. They do essential jobs like moving waste through your intestines and helping your lungs expand when you breathe.

Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal muscles consist of flexible muscle fibers that range from less than half an inch to just over three inches in diameter. These fibers usually span the length of the muscle. The fibers contract or tightens, allowing the muscles to move bones so you can perform lots of different movements.

Skeletal Muscles Structure

Each muscle can contain thousands of fibers. Different types of sheaths, or coverings, surround the fibers:

  • Epimysium: The outermost layer of tissue surrounding the entire muscle.
  • Perimysium: The middle layer surrounding bundles of muscle fibers.
  • Endomysium: The innermost layer surrounding individual muscle fibers.

Actin and myosin are both proteins that are found in every type of muscle tissue. Thick myosin filaments and thin actin filaments work together to generate muscle contractions and movement. 

Myosin is a type of molecular motor that converts chemical energy released from ATP into mechanical energy. 

This mechanical energy is then used to pull the actin filaments along, causing muscle fibers to contract and, thus, generate movement.

What does skeletal muscle look like?

Skeletal muscle fibers are red and white. They look striated, or striped, so they’re often called striated muscles. Cardiac muscles are also striated, but smooth muscles aren’t.

How healthy is skeletal muscle?

Although skeletal muscles typically make up roughly 35% of your body weight, this can vary from person to person. Men have about 36% more skeletal muscle mass than women. People who are tall or overweight also tend to have higher muscle mass. Muscle mass decreases with age in both men and women.

Hypertrophy

In simple terms, hypertrophy just means “to make bigger.” It is the opposite of atrophy which is to make smaller. When we talk about hypertrophy in muscles, we mean muscle growth. Muscle growth and hypertrophy is the primary goal of why people work out and train. 

When you talk about muscular hypertrophy, it is different from just gaining strength. Although with hypertrophy comes more strength, it is a different concept and different mode of work than strength training [2].

  • Hypertrophy is done to increase the size of a muscle
  • Strengthening is done to increase the ability to produce force

2 Different Types of Hypertrophy

1. Myofibrillar hypertrophy

  • This type of muscular hypertrophy involves increasing the number of protein filament bundles known as myofibrils. Myofibrils help the muscle contract and relax. Increasing myofibrils boost muscular strength. With myofibril hypertrophy, the muscle also becomes denser [3].
  • Growth of muscle contraction parts.

2. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy

  • You can also increase the volume of fluid within the muscle. This is called sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. The fluid provides the energy the muscle needs during weight training. Similar to how adding water to a balloon makes the balloon grow, more fluid in the muscle makes it look bigger [4].
  • Increased muscle glycogen storage.

How to Build Muscle?

There are many ways to muscle growth and hypertrophy and strengthen muscle, but we want to focus on how to maximize hypertrophy. 

1. Diet and Sleep 

You need proper fuel and rest to build muscle. There has always been a debate between carbs, proteins, and fats.  With so many diets out there, you should not solely rely on one of them. 

The main thing to always keep in mind when it comes to the human diet is that we need all the macronutrients. It would help if you ate carbs, proteins, and fats. Neglecting any one of those will directly impact not only your muscle growth but your overall health.

Proteins get broken down into amino acids that are the building blocks of all our cells. Carbs are your body’s primary source of fuel. Fats are required for hormone function. Many studies show the benefit of eating a higher amount of protein when trying to build muscle. 

Research indicates that achieving muscle hypertrophy requires balancing muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. Additionally, consuming protein within 24 hours of weight training can provide a positive net balance. 

This net balance supports muscle growth. Follow your workouts with higher protein meals or shakes to give the body the nutrients to achieve maximum hypertrophy.

Carbs are beneficial for:

  • Carbs prevent muscle weakness
  • It can prevent muscle degradation
  • Carbs help muscles recover from exercise

Recommended Protein Intake for Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy

  • Individuals in Energy Balance
  • Consume ~0.4 g/kg body mass (i.e., 0.24 plus 0.06 with protein added to account for the influence of other macronutrients in meals and protein quality), to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following a period of rest or exhaustive resistance exercise.
  • Spacing protein-containing meals ~3–5 h throughout the day maximizes MPS rates over the course of a 12 h (i.e., waking) period.
  • Practice pre-sleep protein ingestion (1–3 h prior to sleep) to offset declines in MPS that would occur during an overnight fasting period.
  • To maximize muscle protein accretion with resistance exercise, daily protein intakes should be ~1.6 g/kg/day and up to 2.2 g/kg/day. This intake can be achieved by ingesting 3 meals, each containing ~0.53 g/kg protein, or 4 meals containing ~0.4g/kg protein.
  • Individuals in Energy Restriction
  • Daily protein requirements are greater than they are during periods of energy balance to promote the maintenance or increase in lean body mass.
  • Resistance exercise should be performed during energy restriction to promote the retention of lean body mass if desired.
  • For athletes cutting weight over an extended period, high-quality protein sources such as whey and casein, or a blend of each, should be chosen to optimize appetite control and ensure dietary compliance.
  • Protein intakes of ~2.3–3.1 g/kg/day have been advocated to promote leaner body mass retention during weight loss. Exercise-naive adults who have a more significant body fat percentage should aim to achieve the lower end of this range. However, leaner individuals with resistance-training experience who are more vulnerable to losing lean body mass during energy restriction should aim for the higher end of this range [5].

2. Exercise

With exercise, muscle growth and hypertrophy are induced. What causes it is “as calcium is released in higher quantities with each contraction induced by the neuron, calcium binds to calmodulin, which activates calmodulin kinases (CaMKs), and in turn, activates Akt, which activates protein synthesis via mTOR and the inhibition of glycogen synthase pathways.”

Muscle growth is achieved when a combination of things occurs: muscle damage and repair, mechanical tension through stretch and force, and the build-up of metabolites like lactate, hydrogen ions, creatine, and others. 

Metabolite accumulation can occur as lactate, hydrogen ions (lowering pH), and phosphate molecules accumulate within the cell. The collection of these, and likely others (like creatine), metabolites in the cell shows an increased expression of Insulin Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1).

This increases the proliferation of satellite cells and increases protein synthesis via the Akt pathway. Also, the increase in growth hormone (GH) further increases the release of IGF and the release of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) for different effects on satellite cell recruitment.

How Muscles Work During Exercise

To be able to return for another bout of exercise, the trauma to the muscle leads the cell to release calcium (likely due to damage to the sarcoplasmic reticulum) into the surrounding extracellular area; this release of calcium leads to the activation of an immune response.

As soon as one hour after this event, neutrophils go through phagocytosis and clean up the debris of dislodged and broken organelle proteins caused by the stress put on the myocyte. 

24-48 hours after myocyte damage, macrophages are the dominant immune cells finishing phagocytosis and releasing cytokines and growth factors to activate other immune clean-up cells and the repair process.

These cytokines, Interleukin-1, 6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are the regulators of inflammatory response and communicate more or less the need for further necrosis and inflammation between immune cells. 

Growth factors such as growth hormone (HGH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are released to begin the repair process.

Main Concepts and Strategies When Exercising

To accomplish muscle growth and hypertrophy you have to induce some kind of physical activity. The main concepts and strategies to think about when creating a program or just in exercise are:

1. Engage in strength training regularly.

You can’t just work a muscle once and expect it to grow. It needs to be stressed repeatedly over time. Resistance training at least three times per week can provide the tension necessary for the muscle to adapt and grow. Constantly doing the same exercise over again is an excellent place to start. Over time repeating the same workout does lead to fewer results, so it is essential to switch up the routine.  

2. Increase resistance over time.

Starting with lighter weights gives the muscle time to adjust to a new weight training program. But once that weight becomes easy to lift, it needs to be increased if the goal is hypertrophy. The general rule is to increase your weight by about 5-10% to prevent injury.

3. Aim to overload the muscle or muscle group.

If you walk out of your weight training sessions feeling as if you could go through the sets and reps again, you’re not overloading your muscle enough. While you don’t want to go to the point of pain, growing muscle requires a certain level of overload. During your workout, aim to push your muscle as much as possible while still being safe.

4. Lift heavy for higher reps.

A hypertrophy workout involves lifting fairly heavy weights. You also want to shoot for higher reps than if your goal was strength. Again, you have to overload the muscles to a certain extent if you want them to grow [6].

5. Sets and repetitions.

Start muscle growth and hypertrophy with two to three sets of ten to 15 reps, completing repetitions at a manageable but challenging weight. So if you are doing three sets of 12 repetitions, the weight you use should be heavy enough that you cannot do more than 12 reps, but not so heavy that you cannot get to 12. If you know your one-rep max and have the basics of working out down, you should be looking to lift between 65%-75% of your 1RM for eight to 12 reps for three to six sets.

6. Reduce your rest periods.

The rest time between sets changes based on whether the goal is to increase muscle size or strength. The recommended rest period is generally between two and five minutes for strength increases. This period is shortened to 30 to 90 seconds to increase muscle size.

7. Allow adequate time for muscle recovery.

Getting enough recovery time is critical to building bigger muscles. It is during this recovery that muscle damage is repaired. Therefore, if you don’t allow enough time for this repair to occur, not only will muscles not reach their maximum size, but you also risk injuring them. Allow 24 to 48 hours before working for the same muscle group again [7]

Muscle Soreness

Many people have sore muscles after working out. The soreness results from tiny tears (microtears) occurring when you put stress on a muscle. Usually, muscle soreness sets in a day or two after vigorous exercise. This condition is why providers call this condition delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).

The muscle tissue becomes inflamed as the muscles repair themselves and the tiny tears heal. Your muscles recover within a few days, and the inflammation goes away. With continued exercise, the muscle tissue tears and rebuilds again and again.

To watch the full episode on Muscle Growth and Hypertrophy, click here for more 👇

TIME STAMPS:

00:00 Intro
00:49 Plugs
02:11 Episode Introduction
06:05 Different types of muscle tissue
07:20 The skeletal muscle structure
11:48 What is hypertrophy?
15:55 How to build muscles and maximize hypertrophy?
18:43 Building muscles: Carbohydrates
20:33 Building muscles: Protein
24:42 Protein recommendations for building muscles
29:32 A Scientific explanation of how hypertrophy works
34:06 Things you can do to maximize hypertrophy.

Men Talk: The Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels

Men Talk: The Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels

The Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels 

In this episode, we will talk about the decline of serum testosterone levels among young Adult Men in the USA. Testosterone is a sex hormone that plays a vital role in the body. It regulates the sex drive, bone mass, and fat distribution.

In addition to that, testosterone is responsible for muscle mass and strength. It is also in charge of sperm production and red blood cells. And small circulating testosterone is converted by the body to estradiol, a form of estrogen.

Mammals have >95% of T fused by Leydig’s cells of the testes and are regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis.

The adrenal glands also produce testosterone but in small amounts. However, the amount produced depends on gender. So, it means different areas have different amounts.

A Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels in Men

A study from 1999 to 2016 showed that the testosterone levels in young adult men and adolescent males with an average body mass index resulted in a decline, as presented in the 2020 American Urological Association Virtual Experience

The reason for this decline in testosterone level is attributed to age. It means that the decrease in these levels is time-dependent. However, the overall reduction in testosterone levels is caused by multiple etiologies. 

Researchers used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) dating from 1999 to 2016 to analyze serum testosterone level changes in 40-45 AYA males. 

This study found a few factors affecting the decline of serum testosterone levels. These are as follows:

  • Age
  • Race
  • BMI
  • Comorbidity status
  • Alcohol intake
  • Smoking
  • Physical activity levels

Here are acceptable testosterone levels for men by age group

  • Early Teens: Between 12 to 13 years old, a person should have 7-800 ng/dL. But by 15 to 16 years old, the ng/dL should be 100-1,200.
  • Late Teens: Anyone between 17 to 18 years old have normal testosterone levels between 300 and 1,200 ng/dL.
  • Adults: An adult (19 years and older) should have anywhere between 240 and 950 ng/dL.

Mean Total Testosterone Decrease: 

  • 1999-2000 (605.39 ng/dL)
  • 2003-2004 (567.44 ng/dL)
  • 2011-2012 (424.96 ng/dL)
  • 2013-2014 (431.76 ng/dL)
  • 2015-2016 (451.22 ng/dL)

An increased BMI is associated with decreased total testosterone levels (P < .0001), with the mean BMI increasing from 25.83 in 1999-2000 to 27.96 in 2015-2016 (P = 0.0006). 

It was noted that even men with an average BMI of 18.5-24.9 had declining total testosterone levels of P < .05 during the same time frames.

Limitations of the Study

The study was a cross-sectional study design, a type of observational study. It is self-reported activity leading to potential bias and testosterone levels are only measured once. However, there were no results given on the participant’s symptoms. It is also the most extensive study of its kind.

Potential Causes Of Decline of Serum Testosterone

  • Increased Obesity/BMI
  • Diet/phytoestrogens 
  • Declined physical activity
  • Fat percentage
  • Marijuana use 
  • Environmental toxins

Increased Obesity/BMI

People with moderate obesity have decreased total testosterone. This decrease could be due to insulin resistance that is associated with reductions in sex hormone-binding globulin. Severe obesity connects with reductions in free testosterone levels.
 
Researchers believe it is due to a suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Obesity also affects iron metabolism and overactivity. It can further contribute to low circulating total T levels.

Diet

A small study conducted in 2016 investigated the dietary patterns associated with serum total T levels and their predictive effect on hypogonadism (low sex drive) and body composition.

Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, and food frequency questionnaires were collected for 125 adult men [1].

People whose diet is mainly composed of bread, pastries, and dairy products and those who rarely eat homemade food or dark green vegetables are most likely at risk for unhealthy body composition.

When the body composition suffers, it can increase visceral fat and decrease skeletal muscle mass. This result can also lead to lower serum total T levels.

How do endocrine disruptors affect the body?

When absorbed in the body, an endocrine disruptor can decrease or increase normal hormone levels, mimic the body’s natural hormones, or alter the natural production of hormones.

Examples: BPA, PFAS, Phytoestrogens, Phthalates, Triclosan &, etc.

Stress Levels Contributes to Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels

Stress can raise your cortisol, which is a hormone that can lower your testosterone once elevated. Reducing stress also reduces testosterone production. So if you want to reduce stress, you must get enough sleep and live a more balanced lifestyle. Exercising also helps and so does proper nutrition in your diet. 

Doing Physical Activity

A 2016 study of men with obesity found that regular exercise increased T levels than even losing weight. 41 overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction).

They measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake [2]. The best exercises to increase T levels are resistance and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). 

One study in men found that interval training helps in boosting T levels. The training consists of 90 seconds of intense treadmill running interspersed with 90 seconds recovery periods.

Results show a significant increase in T levels compared to running on the treadmill for 45 minutes straight [3]. So, to rise the T levels in your body, you must do intense exercises for half an hour or so. Running on the treadmill helps but it might slow down your T-level production. 

Doing cardio has no evidence that it can impact your T-levels, no matter the gender. However, too much cardio may lower your T-levels. 

Can Marijuana Cause a Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels?

A study from 2020 using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2011-2016 had some interesting outcomes. They have studied men who are regular marijuana users and how it had impacted their testosterone levels.

This study had identified all men 18 years old and above who answered the substance use questionnaire and underwent laboratory testing for T levels.

In addition to that, regular THC users were defined as those who use THC at least once per month, every month for at least a year. Does this mean marijuana helps increase the T levels? 

Among 5,146 men who met inclusion, 3,027 endorsed using THC at least once in their lives (ever-user). Nearly half of the THC ever-users (49.3%) were regular THC users.

THC use is associated with small increases in testosterone. This means that the rise in T appears to decline as THC use increases. However, T is still higher with any amount of regular use when compared to T in non-users.

Furthermore, this increase was represented by an inverse U-shaped trend with Regular THC users using two-three times per month. It demonstrates the most significant increase in T (+ 66.77 ng/dL) over non-users [4].

Men who smoke it regularly are twice as likely to have sperm with abnormal shape and size. According to one study, males who smoke marijuana at least once a week experienced a reduced sperm count.

Conclusion: 

What you believe you believe is what you become. If you think you’ll lose intelligence by basking in the sun, you probably will. The hippocampus is 90% affected by what you believe and your confidence, in my case, at least.

If you believe that you’re smarter than Einstein, your neurons will fire corresponding signals, and you’ll be seriously reading and studying. It’s all about self-discipline and determination. 

To watch the full episode of Ep. 94, check out our latest by clicking here 👇

TIME STAMPS:

00:00 Intro
00:52 Plugs
02:11 Episode Introduction
04:02 What is testosterone?
06:00 The fun and exciting time of puberty
07:47 The Decline of Serum Testosterone Levels
11:01 The acceptable testosterone levels for men by age group
13:17 Testosterone decreased by 150 points
15:34 Potential cause of testosterone decrease
15:57 1. Obesity
18:39 2. Diet
20:48 3. Environmental Toxins
22:21 4. Stress
23:19 5. Physical Activity
25:26 6. Marijuana use
29:13 Conclusion
31:54 Wrapping up the episode

EP 156: How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome With Crystal Grant

EP 156: How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome With Crystal Grant

How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome

Have you ever felt like you are never good enough or good at something? Did you ever feel like you are not doing as much as others thought you to be? If you feel like a fraud or do not belong anywhere, you might be suffering from Imposter Syndrome. 

No matter your social status, race, background, skill, level of expertise are, anyone can suffer from this. We must arm ourselves with knowledge and educate others to help those who are struggling with impostor syndrome. 

Overcome Imposter Syndrome

But what is imposter syndrome anyway? How do you know if you are suffering from one? In this new episode, we would like to introduce our guest, Crystal Grant. She is a CRNA, CEO of Superscript Wellness, and author of several books. 

Crystal has also worked in the healthcare system for over 20 years and now coaches nurses and CRNAs about imposter syndrome and how to overcome it. 

She currently has a new book coming out called A CRNA’S Guide to Overcoming Imposter Syndrome. Besides working with nurses and CRNAs, she also has her line of Vitamin gummies. 

So, sit back, relax and enjoy another great episode with your favorite Cup of Nurses! 

QUESTIONS FOR OUR GUEST:

  1. Can you give some background about yourself and how you got to the position you are in today?
  2. How was life growing up? What were some of your goals in life? How have they varied over the years?
    – When we finished nursing school we were making a decent amount of money, we came out with minimal loans and we were making more money than a lot of our friends. When we looked back at where we were at the age of 21/22 compared to a lot of other people it felt like night and day. It still feels that way to this day.
  3. What is Imposter Syndrome? Do you think it comes with success?
    – Imposter Syndrome is a psychological pattern in which an individual doubts their skills, talents, or accomplishments and has a persistent internalized fear of being exposed as a “fraud”.
  4. With many psychological issues like depression and anxiety, is there a genetic predisposition to imposter syndrome? Or is there something that happens in childhood that makes people more susceptible to imposter syndrome?
  5. With the age of neuroplasticity, we can almost reprogram our brain to react differently. How can we use the concept of neuroplasticity to help us with imposter syndrome or other negative thinking?
    – Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to form and reorganize synaptic connections, especially in response to learning or experience or following injury. 
  6. We are holistic beings which means how we feel physically affects us mentally and how we treat ourselves mentally reflects on us physically.
    – How important is physical health? The importance of nutrition, exercise, and supplementation. 
  7. What are some of the ingredients in the gummies you’ve created and what are the benefits of micronutrients? 

To watch the full episode about How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome, click here and learn more 👇

 

You can also find Crystal on Instagram at @thecrystalgrant. Her book titled Overcoming Imposter Syndrome is currently available at thecrystalgrant.com. And to those interested to buy her vitamin gummies, check out superscriptwellness.com and walmart.com for more. 

TIMESTAMP:

00:00 Intro
00:47 Plugs
02:03 Episode Introduction
02:35 About Crystal
04:47 Can imposter syndrome be beneficial to someone who has it?
06:38 What happens to a person who has imposter syndrome?
09:32 Imposter Syndrome: The Perfectionist
11:28 How and when did Crystal know that she had imposter syndrome?
15:02 The 5 Types of Imposter Syndrome
17:19 How does a person get imposter syndrome?
21:26 Ways to Overcome Imposter Syndrome?
24:04 Neuroplasticity: Rewiring the brain
26:44 The best investment is in yourself.
32:53 Mindfulness and meditation can help fight Imposter Syndrome.
35:27 The lack of self-belief
37:29 How did Crystal become an entrepreneur?
39:32 How to get into the supplement business?
42:58 Built for nursing, built for success.
47:32 Where to find Crystal?

 

 

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

How Does Caffeine Affect Your Body?

Can caffeine affect your body? The short answer is yes. In this episode and honor of Caffeine Awareness month, we will discuss how caffeine affects your body and is effects after consuming it for a long time.

Most Americans use caffeine daily but don’t even know what it is or what caffeine exactly does. About 85% of people in the US consume at least one caffeine beverage/per day [1]. 

What is Caffeine, and Can Caffeine Affect Your Body?

When someone says caffeine, we immediately think of coffee. And while coffee has caffeine, it’s not it. Caffeine is a bitter-tasting, white, and odorless powder. It is naturally found in the fruit, leaves, and beans of coffee, cacao, and guarana plants. The truth is that caffeine is added to almost all kinds of food and drinks. 

It is also a Central Nervous System Stimulant and one of the most common psychoactive drugs used globally. In addition to that, caffeine is the only legal, unregulated psychoactive drug. 

So, the next time you wonder why you are addicted to caffeine, it’s because of its psychoactive properties. 

How Caffeine Acts in the Body

The way caffeine works are thought to be mediated by several mechanisms: 

  • Antagonism of adenosine receptors
  • The inhibition of phosphodiesterase
  • Release of calcium from intracellular stores
  • The antagonism of benzodiazepine receptors

The most common one is that it blocks the action of adenosine on its receptors and prevents the drowsiness associated with it.

Adenosine Antagonist 

When a person is awake and alert, small amounts of adenosine are present in CNS. Over time, adenosine accumulates in the neuronal synapse by being constantly awake. 

Once adenosine increases, it binds and activates the receptors found on specific CNS neurons. 

When activated, the adenosine receptors produce a cellular response that increases drowsiness. 

What Happens to Adenosine?

  • When caffeine is consumed, it antagonizes the adenosine receptors. Caffeine prevents adenosine from activating the receptor by blocking the receptor site. Therefore, caffeine temporarily prevents or relieves drowsiness and maintains or restores alertness [2].
  • Caffeine also increases energy metabolism throughout the brain but can also decrease cerebral blood flow, which induces relative brain hypoperfusion [3].

Due to the blocking of adenosine inhibitory effects through its receptors, caffeine indirectly affects the release of the following [4]:

  •  norepinephrine
  • dopamine
  • acetylcholine
  • serotonin
  • glutamate
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
  • neuropeptides 

Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase

Phosphodiesterase inhibition prevents the ability to break down cAMP and cGMP. The levels inside the cell increase, therefore, leading to a decrease in calcium levels in the cell. It leads to vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation [5].

Caffeine is a vasoconstrictor and works mainly in your heart and brain. However, it vasodilates your peripheral and bronchial vessels as well.

Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storage

Caffeine affect the body by taking calcium from the bone and introducing it into the bloodstream. Most studies show that this amount is not substantial enough to cause osteoporosis, and the calcium loss can be replaced by adding some milk. 

Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist 

Studies show that caffeine has weak antagonistic properties at the benzodiazepine receptor sites. The reaction, however, can be due to adenosine suppression [6]. 

SNS vs. PNS

The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) controls homeostasis. The PNS maintains the body at rest and is responsible for the “rest and digest” functions. 

Similarly, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls the body’s responses to a perceived threat and is responsible for the “fight or flight” response. 

Effects of Caffeine on the Body

Caffeine’s direct effects on the body are due to the inactivation of adenosine receptors. It leads to greater stimulation of the SNS, causing various effects. Here are the most common effects of caffeine on the body: 

Increase in alertness

  • The stimulating effects of caffeine cause alertness right away. In addition to that, it can also temporarily relieve drowsiness and fatigue.

Decreased suicide risk – check with your doctor

  • One study found that the mood-enhancing effects of caffeine were linked to a percent lower risk of suicide in participants.

Increased heart rate and blood pressure

  • Caffeine affects your body by resulting in a rapid heartbeat. In that case, this may be a concern if you have a preexisting heart issue. You may notice arrhythmias whenever you have caffeine.
  • It can also temporarily raise your blood pressure. The effects may be especially noticeable if you have caffeine during or right before exercise or other physical activity.

Confusion

  • Too much caffeine can overstimulate the brain, leading to confusion or the inability to focus on one task.

Headache

  • A headache can occur from either too much caffeine or as a symptom of caffeine withdrawal. But specific amounts can help with headaches.

Irritability

  • When your body is used to caffeine, you can experience irritability as a symptom of withdrawal.

Heartburn

  • The acidity of certain caffeinated products, like coffee and soda, may cause heartburn.

Diarrhea

  • Caffeine can also help regulate your bowel movement, but too much intake can cause opposite effects like diarrhea.

Fertility/Pregnancy

  • Some women who consume too much caffeine might experience difficulties getting pregnant. If you’re trying to get pregnant, It’s best not to consume more than 300 mg per day.
  • Consuming too much caffeine affects your body during pregnancy, which may cause miscarriage and developmental issues in newborns. 
  • It’s recommended that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. It equals about one 12-ounce cup of coffee.

Bones

  • Caffeine prevents calcium absorption in the bones, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. As you get older, your bones may break more easily.

Urination

  • Frequent urination may be experienced when you consume too much caffeine. Caffeine affects the body as a diuretic, and long-term use of high amounts of caffeine may increase bladder instability. It can worsen the risk for those already experiencing bladder problems.

Jitters

  • Caffeine can give you the jitters if you’re not used to it. If you have an anxiety disorder or sleep disorder, caffeine may make it worse.

Metabolization of Caffeine 

  • Caffeine from coffee or other beverages is absorbed by the small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion and distributed throughout all bodily tissues.
  • ​​Peak blood concentration is reached within 1–2 hours.
  • Caffeine’s biological half liver varies from individual to individual, roughly between 2 and 7 hrs.
  • It can also be absorbed rectally. However, the rectal route has a 30% lesser absorption rate [7].

The FDA has cited 400 milligrams a day for healthy adults—about four or five cups of coffee—as an amount not generally associated with complications.

To watch the full Episode 92, click here for more 👇

TIME STAMPS:

0:00 Intro
0:50 Plugs
2:16 Episode Intro
6:07 The only unregulated psychoactive drug
10:19 How Caffeine Acts in the Body
10:25 Adenosine Antagonist
13:03 Caffeine decreases cerebral blood flow
15:39 Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase
16:29 Releases Calcium from Intracellular Storages
18:52 Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonist
23:13 A possible reason why you are irritable
25:00 Effects of Caffeine
25:10 Increase in alertness
29:18 Tips on setting your body clock
33:07 Estimating time when to take caffeine
39:32 Frequent urination
39:58 Too much caffeine can cause diarrhea
40:41 Decreased suicide risk
46:33 Caffeine as medicine

Heart Health – #1 Killer in America

Heart Health – #1 Killer in America

Heart Health – the No. 1 Killer in America

What is Cardiovascular Disease?

Taking care of your heart health is essential so you can avoid developing cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease can refer to a number of conditions. These are the following [1]:

Heart Disease

Heart and blood vessel disease (also called heart disease). It includes many problems, many related to atherosclerosis.
 
Atherosclerosis is when plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. Also, the buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can block the blood flow, which can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when a blood clot blocks the blood flow to a part of the heart. If this clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the role of the heart muscle supplied by that artery begins to die.
 
Most people survive their first heart attack and return to their everyday lives. But experiencing a heart attack does mean that you need to make some changes.
 
The medications and lifestyle changes that your doctor recommends may vary. This depends on the damage to your heart and to what degree heart disease caused the attack.
 
A complete blockage of a coronary artery means you suffered a “STEMI” heart attack. It is also known as ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Partial blockage is an “NSTEMI” heart attack or a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
  • Angioplasty: Special tubing with an attached deflated balloon is threaded up to the coronary arteries.
  • Angioplasty, Laser: Similar to angioplasty except that the catheter has a laser tip that opens the blocked artery.
  • Artificial heart valve surgery: Replaces an abnormal or diseased heart valve with a healthy one.
  • Atherectomy: Similar to angioplasty except that the catheter has a rotating shaver on its tip to cut away plaque from the artery.
  • Bypass surgery: Treats blocked heart arteries by creating new passages for blood to flow to your heart muscle.
  • Cardiomyoplasty: An experimental procedure in which skeletal muscles are taken from a patient’s back or abdomen.
  • Heart transplant: Removes a diseased heart and replaces it with a donated healthy human heart.
  • Radiofrequency ablation: A catheter with an electrode at its tip is guided through the veins to the heart muscle to destroy carefully selected heart muscle cells in a very small area.
  • Stent procedure: A stent is a wire mesh tube used to prop open an artery during angioplasty.
  • Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR): A laser is used to drill a series of holes from the outside of the heart into the heart’s pumping chamber.

Stroke

An ischemic stroke (the most common type) occurs when a blood vessel that feeds the brain gets blocked. It is usually from a blood clot.
 
When the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off, some brain cells will begin to die. It can lose functions controlled by that part of the brain, such as walking or talking.
 
A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel within the brain bursts. It is most often caused by uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).
 
Some effects of stroke are permanent if too many brain cells die after lacking oxygen. These cells are never replaced.
 
The good news is that sometimes brain cells don’t die during the stroke — instead, the damage is temporary. Over time, as injured cells repair themselves, impaired function improves. (In other cases, intact brain cells nearby may take over for the damaged brain areas.)
 
Either way, strength may return, speech may improve, and memory may improve. This recovery process is what stroke rehabilitation is all about.
 

Treatment

Gold standard treatment is tissue plasminogen activator, r-tPA (alteplase). It is given 3 hrs after the last normal some situations allow for 4.5 hrs.
 
Another treatment is called an endovascular procedure or a mechanical thrombectomy. It is a recommended option that can help remove a clot in eligible patients. Those with a large vessel occlusion or LVO are usually prioritized.
 
In this procedure, doctors use a wire-cage device called a stent retriever. They thread a catheter through an artery in the groin up to the blocked artery in the brain. The stent opens and grabs the clot. Special suction tubes may also remove the clot.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is sometimes called congestive heart failure. It means the heart isn’t pumping blood as well as it should. But, heart failure does not mean that the heart stops beating — that’s a common misperception.
 
Instead, the heart keeps working, but the body’s need for blood and oxygen isn’t met. Heart failure can get worse if left untreated. If your loved one has heart failure, it’s vital to follow the doctor’s orders.

Treatments

  • Coronary bypass surgery. Blocked arteries can cause heart failure. To clear this, your doctor may recommend coronary artery bypass surgery. The procedure involves taking a healthy blood vessel from your leg, arm, or chest. The blood vessel is then connected below and above the blocked arteries Omit heart. This new pathway improves blood flow to your heart muscle.
  • Heart valve repair or replacement. If a faulty heart valve causes your heart failure, the valve needs to be repaired or replaced. Surgeons can repair the valve by reconnecting valve flaps. It can also be by removing excess valve tissue so that the leaflet closes. Sometimes, fixing the valve includes tightening or replacing the ring around the valve.
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). An ICD is used to prevent complications of heart failure. It isn’t a treatment for heart failure itself, but it is like a pacemaker. It is implanted under the skin in your chest with wires leading through your veins and into your heart.
  • The ICD monitors the heart rhythm. If the heart starts beating at a dangerous rhythm, or if the heart stops. When the heart stops, this device will try to pace your heart or shock it back into normal rhythm. An ICD can also work as a pacemaker and speed your heart up if it is going too slow.
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Also called biventricular pacing. CRT is a treatment for heart failure in people whose lower heart chambers (ventricles) aren’t pumping in sync. A biventricular pacemaker sends electrical signals to the ventricles. It signals your ventricles to contract. This will trigger the ventricles to contract in a more coordinated way. It improves blood pumping out of your heart, and CRT may be used with an ICD.
  • Ventricular assist devices (VADs). — also known as a mechanical circulatory support device. It is a device that helps pump blood from the lower chambers of your heart (ventricles) to the rest of your body. Although a VAD can be placed in one or both ventricles of your heart, it is most implanted in the left ventricle.
    • The doctor may recommend a VAD if you wait for a heart transplant. In some cases, VAD is used as a permanent treatment for people who have heart failure. But those who aren’t good candidates for a heart transplant are first in line.
  • Heart transplant. Some people have severe heart failure, that surgery or medications don’t help. These people may need to have their hearts replaced with a healthy donor heart.
 
Medications
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These drugs relax blood vessels to lower blood pressure, improve blood flow and decrease the strain on the heart. Examples include enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned), lisinopril (Zestril, Qbrelis, Prinivil), and captopril.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers. These drugs, which include losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), and candesartan (Atacand), have many of the same benefits as ACE inhibitors. They may be an option for people who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors.
  • Beta-blockers. These drugs slow your heart rate and reduce blood pressure. Beta-blockers may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, improve heart function, and help you live longer. Examples include carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL, Kapspargo Sprinkle), and bisoprolol.
  • Diuretics. Often called water pills, diuretics make you urinate more frequently and keep fluid from collecting in your body. Diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), also decrease fluid in your lungs to breathe more easily.
    • Because diuretics make your body lose potassium and magnesium, your doctor may also prescribe supplements of these minerals. If you’re taking a diuretic, your doctor will likely monitor potassium and magnesium levels in your blood through regular blood tests.
  • Aldosterone antagonists. These drugs include spironolactone (Aldactone, Carospir) and eplerenone (Inspra). They are potassium-sparing diuretics with additional properties that may help people with severe systolic heart failure live longer.
    • Diuretics like spironolactone and eplerenone can raise the potassium in your blood to dangerous levels. Talk to your doctor if this is a concern so you can modify your intake of food high in potassium.
  • Positive inotropes. These medications may be given by IV to people with certain types of severe heart failure who are in the hospital. Positive inotropes can help the heart pump blood more effectively and maintain blood pressure. Long-term use of these drugs has been linked to an increased risk of death. Talk to your health care provider about the benefits and risks of these drugs.
    • Dobutamine and milrinone are the most common. 
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin). This drug, also called digitalis, increases the strength of your heart muscle contractions. It also tends to slow the heartbeat. Digoxin reduces heart failure symptoms in systolic heart failure. It may be more likely to be given to someone with a heart rhythm problem, such as atrial fibrillation.
  • Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (BiDil). This drug combination helps relax blood vessels. It may be added to your treatment plan if you have severe heart failure symptoms and ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers haven’t allowed.
  • Vericiguat (Verquvo). This newer medicine for chronic heart failure is taken once a day by mouth. It’s a type of drug called an oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator. In studies, those with high-risk heart failure who took vericiguat had fewer hospital stays for heart failure and heart disease-related deaths than those who received an inactive pill (placebo).

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia refers to an abnormal heart rhythm. There are various types of arrhythmias. The heart can beat too slow, too fast, or irregularly.

Bradycardia, or a heart rate that’s too slow, is when the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Tachycardia, or a heart rate that’s too fast, refers to a heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute.

An arrhythmia can affect your heart health and how it works. With an irregular heartbeat, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs.

Treatment

  • Vagal maneuvers. If you have a very fast heartbeat due to supraventricular tachycardia, your doctor may recommend this therapy. Vagal maneuvers affect the nervous system that controls your heartbeat (vagus nerves), often causing your heart rate to slow. For example, you may be able to stop an arrhythmia by holding your breath and straining, dunking your face in ice water, or coughing. Vagal maneuvers don’t work for all types of arrhythmias.
  • Cardioversion. This method to reset the heart rhythm may be done with medications or as a procedure. Your doctor may recommend this treatment if you have a certain type of arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation.
    • During the cardioversion procedure, a shock is delivered to your heart through paddles or patches on your chest. The current affects the electrical impulses in your heart and can restore a normal rhythm.
  • Catheter ablation. In this procedure, the doctor threads one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart. Electrodes at the catheter tips use heat or cold energy to create tiny scars in your heart to block abnormal electrical signals and restore a normal heartbeat.
  • Pacemaker. If slow heartbeats (bradycardias) don’t have a cause that can be corrected. Doctors often treat them with a pacemaker because there aren’t any medications that can reliably speed up the heart.
    • A pacemaker is a small device that’s usually implanted near the collarbone. One or more electrode-tipped wires run from the pacemaker through the blood vessels to the inner heart. If the heart rate is too slow or if it stops, the pacemaker sends out electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat at a steady rate.
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Your doctor may recommend this device if you’re at high risk of developing a dangerously fast or irregular heartbeat in the lower heart chambers (ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation). If you have heart health issues, had a sudden cardiac arrest, or have certain heart conditions that increase your risk of sudden cardiac arrest, your doctor may also recommend an ICD.
    • An ICD is a battery-powered unit that’s implanted under the skin near the collarbone — similar to a pacemaker. One or more electrode-tipped wires from the ICD run through veins to the heart. The ICD continuously monitors your heart rhythm.
    • If the ICD detects an abnormal heart rhythm, it sends out low- or high-energy shocks to reset the heart to a normal rhythm. An ICD doesn’t prevent an irregular heart rhythm from occurring, but it treats it if it occurs.
  • Maze procedure. In the maze procedure, a surgeon makes a series of incisions in the heart tissue in the upper half of your heart (atria) to create a pattern (or maze) of scar tissue. Because scar tissue doesn’t conduct electricity, it interferes with stray electrical impulses that cause some types of arrhythmia.
    • The maze procedure is usually reserved for people who don’t get better with other treatments or who are having open-heart surgery for other reasons.
  • Coronary bypass surgery. If you have severe coronary artery disease in addition to heart arrhythmia, your doctor may perform coronary bypass surgery. This procedure may improve the blood flow to your heart. Because of this, your heart health may be compromised. 

Heart valve problems

Once your heart health goes down, problems arise. When heart valves don’t open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should, a condition called stenosis results.

When the heart valves don’t close properly and allow blood to leak through, it’s called regurgitation. If the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber, it’s a condition called prolapse. 

Treatment

  • Heart valve repair: Patch holes in a valve. Separate valve leaflets that have fused. Replace the cords that support the valve. Remove excess valve tissue so that the valve can close tightly.
    • Surgeons often tighten or reinforce the ring around a valve (annulus) by implanting an artificial ring. In some cases, doctors use less invasive procedures to repair certain valves using long, thin tubes (catheters). These procedures can involve clips, plugs, or other devices.
  • Heart Valve Replacement: If the valve is not repaired, surgeons might remove the damaged valve and replace it with a mechanical valve. It can also be a valve made from cow, pig, or human heart tissue (biological or tissue valve).
    • If you had valve replacement with a mechanical valve, you’d need to take blood thinners to prevent blood clots for the rest of your life. Biological tissue valves break down over time and usually need to be replaced.
    • A minimally invasive procedure called transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may be used to replace a damaged aortic valve. In this procedure, the doctor inserts a long, thin tube (catheter) into an artery in your leg or chest and guides it to the heart valve. A replacement valve is moved through this catheter to the correct position.

Types of Cardiac Medications for Your Heart’s Health

  • Anticoagulant – is used to treat specific blood vessel, heart, and lung conditions.
  • Antiplatelet agent – keeps blood clots from forming by preventing blood platelets from sticking together.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor – expands blood vessels and decreases resistance by lowering levels of angiotensin II. Allows blood to flow more easily and makes the heart’s work easier or more efficient.
  • Beta-blocker: Decreases the heart health rate and cardiac output, lowering blood pressure and making the heartbeat more slowly, with less force.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blocker – rather than lowering levels of angiotensin II (as ACE inhibitors do), angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent this chemical from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels. This medication keeps blood pressure from rising.
  • Combined alpha and beta-blocker: Combined alpha and beta-blockers are used as an IV drip for those patients experiencing a hypertensive crisis. They may be prescribed for outpatient high blood pressure use if the patient is at risk for heart failure.
  • Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor: Neprilysin is an enzyme that breaks down natural substances in the body that open narrowed arteries. By inhibiting neprilysin, those natural substances can have their usual effect. That improves artery opening and blood flow, reduces sodium (salt) retention, and decreases strain on the heart.
  • Calcium channel blocker Interrupts the movement of calcium into the heart and blood vessel cells. May decrease the heart’s pumping strength and relax the blood vessels.
  • Cholesterol-lowering medications: Various medications can lower blood cholesterol levels, but statins are the best first course of action. Other drugs may be recommended when statins prove ineffective or if a patient experiences severe side effects from statin therapy.
  • Digitalis preparation: Increases the force of the heart’s contractions, which can be beneficial in heart failure and for irregular heartbeats.
  • Diuretics: Cause the body to rid itself of excess fluids and sodium through urination. Help to relieve the heart’s workload. Diuretics also decrease fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts of the body, such as the ankles and legs. Different diuretics remove fluid at varied rates and through various methods.
  • Vasodilator: Relaxes blood vessels and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload. Available as pills to be swallowed, chewable tablets, and a topical application (cream).

Fact Sheet – Heart Disease

Taking care of your heart health is essential. Remember that heart disease is the leading cause of death for men, women, and people of most racial and ethnic groups in the United States [2].

  • There are about 3 million deaths in the US.
  • Cardiovascular disease alone accounts for almost 1/4th of the total deaths in the US. 
  • One person dies every 36 seconds in the United States from cardiovascular disease.
  • Heart disease cost the United States about $363 billion each year from 2016 to 2017. It includes the cost of heart health care services, medicines, and lost productivity due to death.

Coronary Artery Disease

  • Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing 360,900 people in 2019.
    • About 18.2 million adults age 20 and older have CAD (about 6.7%).
    • About 2 in 10 deaths from CAD happen in adults less than 65 years old.

Heart Attacks

In the United States, a person suffers from a heart attack every 40 seconds.

  • Every year, about 805,000 people in the United States have a heart attack. Of these,
    • 605,000 are a first heart attack
    • 200,000 happen to people who have already had a heart attack
    • About 1 in 5 heart attacks are silent—the damage is done, but the person is not aware of it.
Race of Ethnic Group % of Deaths Men, % Women, %
American Indian or Alaska Native 18.3 19.4 17.0
Asian American or Pacific Islander 21.4 22.9 19.9
Black (Non-Hispanic) 23.5 23.9 23.1
White (Non-Hispanic) 23.7 24.9 22.5
Hispanic 20.3 20.6 19.9
All 23.4 24.4 22.3

Cardiovascular Disease Beyond Death

Cardiovascular disease isn’t something that just happens one day and death follows it the next. It is a chronic heart health condition that gets worse over time. Often times it can be managed and people can live active and great lives even when they have comorbidity.

Cardiovascular disease is not a death sentence but when it is not managed properly, it can be a problem[3]. According to heart.org, almost half of the US population has some type of cardiovascular disease. 

    • According to 2017 figures, 116.4 million people had hypertension, almost half of the US population at that time, and that is just hypertension alone.
    • Cardiovascular disease is such an issue that the AHA had to lower its guidelines for what hypertension is from 140/90 to 130/80 so that people can get treated sooner.
  • 1 in 5 Americans reported having adequate aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activity to meet the physical activity guidelines.
  • Estimates for 2035 are showing that more than 130 million people will have some form of cardiovascular disease and the total cost to the healthcare system would be $1.1 trillion. 

Activity Guidelines for Your Heart Health

Key Guidelines for Adults

    • Adults should move more and sit less throughout the day. Some physical activity is better than none. Those people who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity gain some health benefits.
  • For substantial heart health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) to 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise. Preferably, aerobic activity should be spread throughout the week.
  • Additional heart health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond 300 minutes (5 hours) of moderate-intensity physical activity a week.
  • Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities of moderate or greater intensity that involve all major muscle groups two or more days a week. These activities provide additional heart health benefits.

Key Guidelines for Older Adults

The fundamental guidelines for adults also apply to older adults. In addition, the following vital guidelines are just for older adults [4]:

    • Older adults should do multicomponent physical activity as part of their weekly physical activity that includes balance training and aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercises.
    • Senior adults should determine their level of effort for physical activity relative to their fitness level.
    • Older adults with chronic conditions should understand whether and how their conditions affect their ability to do regular physical activity safely.

Aging adults cannot do 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity weekly because of chronic conditions. They should be as physically active as their abilities and needs allow. 

Diets Effects on Cardiovascular Disease

Trans Fats

Artificial trans fats or trans fatty acids are created in the industrial food-making process. By adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils, making them more solid [5]. Restaurants and certain food businesses use trans fats because they make food taste better and improve texture. The oils can be reused many times over. 
 
Although the FDA has guidelines on how much trans fats are allowed, they are not illegal to use. The FDA has stated that hydrogenated oils are not generally recognized as safe. Heart.org recommends ideal 2 grams or less, the closer to 0, the better. 

Trans Fat in Our Diet

The FDA also does not require to list trans fats if the product contains <0.5g. So, if you think about it, some of the products can have 0.4g, and through your diet, the total can add up to well over the 2g recommendation. 

Common foods that have trans fats:

  • Fast food
  • Doughnuts
  • baked goods 
  • pie crusts
  • Biscuits
  • frozen pizza
  • Cookies
  • Crackers
  • margarine and other spreads
There are naturally occurring trans fats like those in dairy and milk products. Keep in mind those are occurring and also in small amounts. There’s no research on the difference between artificial trans fats and occurring ones. 
 
One study looked at trans fat consumption in Iranian homes [6]. A study was done on 35,924 individuals and looked at their trans fat consumption. This consumption showed an association with heart health and coronary artery diseases.
 
It concluded that the average intake of trans fats was about 14g/1000 kcal. Trans fatty acids is accounted for 33% of fatty acid consumption. They concluded that 39% of coronary heart health events could have been prevented if unsaturated fatty acids had replaced them

To watch the full episode of Ep. 85, check out the whole video here 👇👇👇

TIME STAMPS:

0:00 Introduction
0:52 Sponsor Ads
2:01 Cup of Nurses Introduction
2:30 Episode Introduction
2:46 What is Cardiovascular Disease?
5:36 Heart Disease
9:50 What happens in the hospital when you get a heart attack?
26:00 What are the 2 types of stroke?
28:32 Treatments for Stroke
31:58 Heart Failure
32:20 When does heart failure happen?
34:48 Treatments for Heart Failure
48:00 Medications for Heart Failure
54:41 What is Arrhythmia?
55:03 Treatments for Arrhythmia
1:04:10 Heart Valve Problems
1:06:12 Treatments for Heart Valve Problems
1:07:01 Types of Cardiac Medications
1:11:58 Fact sheet – Heart Disease
1:14:49 Probability of Heart Attack Based on Ethnicity Group
1:17:47 Activity Guidelines for Adults
1:21:25 Diets Affecting Cardiovascular Disease