Cannabis as a Treatment For COVID-19?

Cannabis as a Treatment For COVID-19?

Cannabis as a treatment for COVID-19?

For full disclosure, this certainly isn’t to say that smoking marijuana will protect you from COVID-19. It’s not the reason why a person gets COVID either. Generally, it doesn’t have anything to do with cannabis. Regardless of your view on cannabis, the results are intriguing. But can cannabis be used as a treatment for Covid-19?


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) or the COVID-19 pandemic includes at least 272 million cases worldwide. It has resulted in 5.3 million deaths, and over 600 000 new cases daily as of December 2021. Its crown-like protrusions on its outer surface characterize it. 

SARS-CoV-2 features RNA strands that encode its four main structural proteins. It has a spike, envelope, membrane, nucleocapsid, 16 nonstructural proteins, and several “accessory” proteins. 

These proteins bind to the host cell by recognizing the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is a homolog of ACE. It then converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1–9. The ACE2 is distributed mainly in the lung, intestine, heart, and kidney, and alveolar epithelial type II cells are the principal expressing cells. 

ACE2 is also a known receptor for SARS-CoV. The S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV S protein binds with ACE2 to promote the formation of endosomes, which triggers viral fusion activity under low pH [1].

Is it possible to use cannabis as a treatment for COVID-19? 

This study was published in the Journal of Natural products. The Oregon State University (OSU) research shows hemp compounds prevent coronavirus. It shows that it prevents it from entering human cells. 
Findings of the study led by Richard van Breemen at OSU found a pair of cannabinoid acids. It binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It is blocking a critical step in the virus’s process to infect people [2]. 
The compounds are cannabigerolic acid, or CBGA, and cannabidiolic acid, CBDA, which inhibit the same spike protein
This compound is the drug target used in COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapy. These cannabinoid acids are abundant in hemp and many hemp extracts. But, it doesn’t have any controlled substances like THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana
Richard van Breemen demonstrated through research that they were effective against variants of SARS-CoV-2. It also includes variant B.1.1.7. It was first detected in the United Kingdom, and variant B.1.351 was first seen in South Africa.”
When researchers created antiviral interventions, any part of the infection and replication cycle is a potential target. It targets the spike protein means cell entry inhibitor. It blocks and shortens infection by preventing virus particles from infecting human cells. In addition to that, binding to spike proteins will prevent the spike from binding to ACE2 enzymes

The Research Method

Van Breemen’s team used affinity selection–mass spectrometric (AS-MS). It is a discovery of natural ligands to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It ranked these cannabinoid ligands by affinity to the spike protein. As two CBDA and CGBA have the highest relationships and proves to block infection.
AS-MS involves incubating an important receptor like the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This protein with a mixture of possible ligands such as a botanical extract. 
The ligand-receptor complexes separate from nonbinding molecules using one of several methods. These are ultrafiltration, size exclusion, or magnetic microbeads. The ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to characterize the affinity-extracted ligands.
“Our earlier research reported on discovering another compound, one from licorice, that binds to the spike protein too,” he said. “However, we did not test that compound, licochalcone A, for activity against the live virus. We need new funding for that.” Licorice is an herb that grows in parts of Europe and Asia.
Fun fact: In November 2017, The World Health Organization announced that CBD showed no evidence of abuse or dependence potential in humans. There is no evidence of public health-related problems associated with using pure CBD. 

In January 2018, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) removed CBD from its prohibited list, no longer banning its use by athletes.

Cannabis and the Cytokine Storm

One of the main events that occur in patients with COVID-19 is a “cytokine storm.” A cytokine storm is when your body releases pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to increased inflammation. 

Cytokines are small proteins released by many different cells in the body. This includes those of the immune system, which coordinates the body’s response to infection.

Unfortunately, excessive or uncontrolled levels of cytokines are released in some patients. Similarly, it activates more immune cells, resulting in hyperinflammation. It can seriously harm or even kill the patient.

What happens is COVID patients suffer from lung fibrosis. It is an untreatable condition that leaves lung tissue scarred. This makes it more difficult for them to breathe. 

C.Sativa is a type of cannabis in a cytokine storm study to reduce multiple cytokines and pathways related to inflammation and fibrosis.

Two of the cytokines that C.Sativa facilitated were TNFa and IL-6. These are the main targets when trying to block a COVID-19 cytokine storm.

A 2020 mouse-model study found that CBD, an active cannabinoid compound found in cannabis, the results suggests a potential protective role for CBD during ARDS.

It can extend CBD as part of the treatment of COVID-19 by reducing the cytokine storm, protecting pulmonary tissues, and re-establishing inflammatory homeostasis [3].

How Else Could Cannabis Benefit COVID-19 Patients?

The symptoms of COVID-19 include body aches, sore throat, headaches, and pain. Research shows that Cannabis can help treat these symptoms.
In a study in 2018, 2,032 medical cannabis users have examined. These ranging from 21 illnesses treated with Cannabis showed promising results. It has shown significant potential as a pain reliever. Its potency showed its ability to increase serotonin effects, a neurotransmitter that can induce pain relief [4].
The endocannabinoid system distributes throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a part of the inflammatory and pain processing. It also plays physiological regulatory roles across every organ system. 
This system interacts within its pathways and major endogenous pain pathways. It includes inflammatory, endorphin/enkephalin. THC is 20 times more anti-inflammatory than aspirin. It is also twice as anti-inflammatory as hydrocortisone. It has well-documented analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits. This includes arthritic and inflammatory conditions.

The CB1 and CB2 Receptors

The CB1 receptor is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the brain. It is also one of the most productive in peripheral and central nervous systems.
CB1 receptors connect to the presynaptic peripheral and central nerve terminals. They’re found through the anatomical pain pathways. These receptors are also present in other neurological central and peripheral locations. The CB1 receptor with the “high” felt with some cannabis strains.
These receptors are within the peripheral tissues and immune cells. It helps the release cytokines, chemokines, and cell migration, including neutrophils and macrophages. Some are present in the central nervous system. It may also contribute to pain relief by dopamine release modulation.


For many COVID-19 Patients and patients in general, hospitalization can be stressful. As WHO stated, there aren’t any physical dependencies associated with CBD. They believe that the compound could help reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety. Besides that, CBD can increase serotonin activity and lower cortisol levels.
Reducing these chemicals is helpful for anxiety management as serotonin reduces anxiety. Cortisol is a stress hormone at higher levels in patients with anxiety and depression [5]. In a 2019 Double-blinded placebo trial with CBD. They took 37 18-19 Japanese teenagers with social anxiety disorder.
One group (N=17) took 300mg of CBD for four weeks, the other group took a placebo (N=20). The results state that CBD could be a practical option to treat social anxiety.

Watch the full Episode 86 and learn more about how CBD can help Covid by clicking here 👇


0:00 Introduction
0:52 Sponsor Ads
2:01 Cup of Nurses Introduction
3:35 Episode Introduction
10:29 SARS Cov-2 Update
13:38 Is it possible to use cannabis as a treatment for COVID-19?
14:57 The Research Method by Van Breemen’s Team
21:23 How We Should Deal with C19 Vaccines
24:34 Fun Fact About the Use of CBD
25:08 Cannabis and the Cytokine Storm
31:48 What is C. Sativa? The compound in the Cytokine storm.
33:03 Mouse-Model Study of CBD
33:54 How else could Cannabis benefit COVID-19 Patients?
42:12 The CB1 and CB2 Receptors



The Science of Blood – Nurse Edition

The Science of Blood – Nurse Edition

The Science of Blood – Nurse Edition

In this episode, we will talk about the science of blood. It is precisely what it comprises, its different types, administer it, and what to watch out for.

What is Blood?

When people think of blood, it’s usually the red liquid that comes out of your cut, or what you see in gore movies. But blood is more than just that. For one it has three different components:

  • Red Blood Cells: 44%
  • White Blood Cells and Platelets: 1%
  • Plasma: 55%

Many people are not familiar with how blood works or what it is even made of. If you are interested in blood or work in this field (blood banks, labs, etc.), this episode will teach you everything you need to know about it. 

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes, and they account for 44% of your blood. These cells are round, flat, and look like a donut.
Hospitals check for red blood cells’ size, shape, and health when a person is in the hospital. It is also the first thing that doctors look into to identify a person’s health condition.

The RBCs have two crucial functions:

  • Takes oxygen from the lungs and delivers it to the rest of the body.
  • Removes carbon dioxide from the body, breathe it out, and returns it to the lungs.
RBC works with the help of hemoglobin, maintaining acid-base balance in the body. The red blood cells can live for 120 days and produce by the bone marrow. After 120 days, the spleen breaks them down, while the liver turns them into amino acids.
For RBCs to function they need nutrition to stay healthy. These cells survive and stay healthy with the help of Vitamins B12, B2, B3, folate, and iron.


The biggest problem that occurs with irregular red blood cells is anemia. This condition is when the RBC has low oxygenation. It leads to developmental delays in children. In severe cases, anemia leads to heart failure. The most common symptoms of anemia are tachycardia, lethargy, pale skin, and chills.

Common Types of Anemia:

Iron-deficiency Anemia – happens when your body does not have enough iron to produce red blood cells. It is also the most common form of anemia. The most common causes of iron deficiency are when you have:

  • A diet low in iron
  • Sudden blood loss 
  • Menstrual periods
  • Inability to absorb iron from food (ex. post-surgery)

Sickle Cell Anemia – is an inherited disease where the red blood cells look like a half-moon or sickle. This cell does not flow well in the blood vessels and causes blockage in the blood vessels. It can lead to organ damage, pain, and infection. Sickle cells also die after 20 days compared to normal RBC which is 120 days.  

Normocytic anemia – the RBC is normal in shape, but the number produced doesn’t meet the body’s needs. It usually causes long-term conditions in the body like cancer, kidney diseases, or rheumatoid arthritis.

Hemolytic Anemia – is a condition when the RBCs are destroyed even before their lifespan is over. When this happens, the body does not have enough red blood cells to function as your bone marrow cannot meet the demand. 

Fanconi Anemia – is the rarest form of anemia and is an inherited disorder like sickle cell. Anemia like this happens when the bone marrow cannot produce enough blood components. Red blood cells are also part of this blood component. Children born with this condition often develop leukemia [1].

Blood Types

There are eight blood types from the four blood groups. These are A, B, AB, and O. All red blood cells, positive or negative, have Rh factors except Type O.
The proteins can elicit an immune response when they contact their corresponding antibody. They stimulate the antibodies in the plasma to defend the body.
The antibodies in the blood protect your body from foreign invaders. Blood types have antibodies except for Type AB.
Type AB is in the plasma surrounding the RBCs. The recipient’s plasma antibodies must be the opposite of the antigen found on the donor’s red blood cell.

Blood Groups and Types

A blood type: has only A antigens on its surface but B antibodies in the plasma

  • Donates to: A and AB
  • Recipient of: O and A

B blood type: has only B antigens on its surface but A antibodies in the plasma

  • Donates to: B and AB
  • Recipients of: O and B

AB blood type: has both A and B antigens on its surface but NO antibodies in the plasma

  • Donates to: AB
  • Recipient of: O, A, B, and AB

O blood type: has NO antigens on its surface but has A and B antibodies in the plasma

  • Donates to: O, A, B, AB
  • Recipient of: O

Rh Factor

  • These factors are either found on the surface of a red blood cell or not. Either a person has them, or they don’t!
  • If the factors are present on the RBC, the person is Rh POSITIVE. If the elements are absent on the RBC, the person is Rh NEGATIVE.
  • Example: A+ (has factors present) or A- (no factors present)
  • IMPORTANT! If a patient is Rh-positive, they can receive either Rh+ or RH- blood. On the other hand, if a patient is Rh-negative, they can only receive Rh- blood.
The same RBC antigen and antibody cause an immune response called agglutination. This is when RBCs stick together and the donor’s red blood cells will lysis. When this happens, a reaction called hemolytic transfusion occurs. A donor’s RBC is then compared to the patient’s antibodies.

White Blood cells and Platelets

White blood cells account for 1% of your total blood. The main difference between leukocytes and RBCs or platelets is that they have a nucleus. White blood cells are responsible for your immunity.
You’d think there would be more than 1% of total blood for such an important role. There are also different types of blood cells with extra responsibilities [2].

Types of White Blood Cells

There are five main types of leukocytes.

  1. Neutrophils
    1. 62% of leukocytes are neutrophils. They are responsible for fighting off bacteria and fungi.
    2. They live for about 6hrs – to a few days.
  2. Lymphocytes
    1. 30% of leukocytes are lymphocytes. There are different types of lymphocytes.
      1. B cells: responsible for antibodies and activating T cells.
      2. T cells: are made in the thymus 
        1. Cytotoxic T cells: destroy infected cells (viral or cancer) through the use of granule sacs that contain digestive enzymes.
        2. Helper T cells: activate T cells, macrophages, and B cells.
        3. Regulatory T cells:  suppress the actions of B and T cells to decrease the immune response.
        4. Memory T cells protect against previously encountered antigens and provide lifetime protection against some pathogens.
        5. Natural Killer T cells: destroy infected or cancerous cells and attack cells that do not contain molecular markers that identify them as body cells.
  3. Monocytes
    1. 5.5% of leukocytes are monocytes.
      1. It is made in the bone marrow and travels through the blood to tissues in the body, where it becomes a macrophage or a dendritic cell. Macrophages surround and kill microorganisms, ingest foreign material, remove dead cells, and boost immune responses.
      2. During inflammation, dendritic cells stimulate immune responses by showing antigens on their surface to other immune system cells.
      3. A monocyte is a type of white blood cell and a type of phagocyte.
  4. Eosinophils
    1. 2% of all leukocytes are eosinophils. They are responsible for fighting off larger parasites and are part of the allergic inflammatory response. 
    2. They live for about 8-12 days.
  5. Basophils
    1. 0.5% of leukocytes are basophils. They are responsible for histamine release during inflammation. 


Platelets are thrombocytes produced by the bone marrow. They are responsible for coagulation which is crucial to wound healing. If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it signals platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage  [3].

  • An average platelet count is 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood.
  • The risk for bleeding develops if a platelet count falls below 10,000 to 20,000.
    • Thrombocytopenia: IIs a condition when your bone marrow makes too few platelets, or your platelets are destroyed. If the platelet count gets too low, bleeding can occur under the skin. This is seen as bruising, inside the body as internal bleeding, or outside the body through a cut that won’t stop bleeding or from a nosebleed. Thrombocytopenia can be caused by many conditions, including several medications, cancer, kidney disease, pregnancy, infections, and an abnormal immune system.

Some people make too many platelets and can have platelet counts from 500,000 to more than 1 million.

  • Thrombocythemia – is a condition when the bone marrow makes too many platelets. The symptoms can include blood clots that form and block the blood supply to the brain or the heart. However, the cause of thrombocythemia is unknown.
  • Thrombocytosis –  is a condition caused by too many platelets. But platelet counts do not get as high as thrombocythemia. It is also more common and is not caused by the abnormal bone marrow. It is often caused by another disease in the body that stimulates the bone marrow to make more platelets. Those affected with thrombocytosis often have cancer, infections, inflammation, and reactions to medications. The symptoms of thrombocytosis are not usually severe, and the platelet count becomes normal again once the underlying condition becomes better. 


Plasma makes up 55% of the total blood volume. It contains water, protein, glucose, clotting factors, hormones, electrolytes, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Generally, it carries nutrients, hormones, and proteins to different parts of the body. It also carries the waste products of cell metabolism away from tissues. Other than that, plasma is also the vehicle for blood cells to the blood vessels [4].

In addition, plasma is the vehicle for transporting blood cells through the blood vessels.

  • Coagulation – many essential proteins, such as fibrinogen, thrombin, and factor X, are present in plasma and play a vital role in the clotting process to stop a person from bleeding.
  • Immunity – blood plasma contains disease-fighting proteins, such as antibodies and immunoglobulins, which play a crucial role in the immune system by fighting pathogens.
  • Blood pressure and volume maintenance – a protein present in plasma called albumin helps maintain the oncotic pressure. This pressure prevents fluid from leaking into the body and skin where less water is present. It also helps ensure blood flow through blood vessels.
  • pH balance – substances present in blood plasma act as buffers, allowing plasma to maintain a pH within normal ranges, which helps to support cell function.
  • Transportation – plasma transports nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and other essential substances all over the body. It also helps to remove waste products by transporting them to the liver, lungs, kidneys, or skin.
  • Body temperature – plasma helps maintain body temperature by balancing heat loss and heat gain in the body.

Blood Product Administration

Nurses should always follow the best standard practices when administering blood transfusions. They must also follow the standard policies and procedures of the healthcare facility.[5]

Blood transfusion consent, blood typing, and cross-matching are all needed before administering blood. But these are not required if the situation is an emergency. Checking blood products against the order and using two patient identifiers is critical. Blood must be given to patients within 30 minutes after being taken from the blood bank.

  • The patient and family members are informed about the procedure including what to expect during and after it is done.
  • Before administration, two licensed personnel must verify the correct blood product and patient. 
  • Blood products need a dedicated line for infusion and filtered intravenous tubing. Normal saline flushes the intravenous line, with no other solutions or medications. 
  • Need to take vital signs before initiating the transfusion. The nurse stays with the patient for the first 15 minutes of the transfusion. This is done to check for any immediate reaction. 
  • Vital signs are monitored for 15 minutes once the transfusion starts. It’s monitored during, after and one hour after the transfusion is complete.

Blood transfusion can create adverse reactions in the patient. The signs and symptoms of blood transfusion reactions for hemolytic and non-hemolytic reactions include:

  • Pain
  • Anxiety
  • Hematuria
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Pruritus
  • Rash or hives
  • Nausea
  • Respiratory difficulties (common for non-hemolytic reactions)
The symptoms mentioned above, plus hypotension, bleeding, and oliguria shows hemolytic reactions. Blood transfusion should stop immediately but keep an IV line open for normal saline.
Patients are monitored by the healthcare provider and physicians must be noted immediately. The remaining blood products and tubing are then taken to the laboratory to be tested.

Want more blood? Click here 👇 to watch the full Episode 81:


0:00 Introduction
3:16 Episode Introduction
5:12 Red Blood Cells
11:20 Common Types of Anemia
19:50 Blood Types
26:45 Types of White Blood Cells
36:24 Platelets
47:00 Plasma
53:01 Blood Product Administration

Are Staffing Agencies Overcharging?

Are Staffing Agencies Overcharging?

Are Staffing Agencies Overcharging? 

Over the years, the issues among overcharging staffing agencies have become a problem. Many nurses have been asking for a better ratio and higher pay for their services, but it all seems to fall on deaf ears. Even before the pandemic, this has been an ongoing issue among the nursing community. Now that we are facing a pandemic, the same problem still exists. 

In this episode, we will talk about the overcharging staffing agencies for nurses, how the pandemic affected nurses’ jobs, and even share some of our experiences as travel nurses. 

In the letter, Senators Mark Kelly (D-Ariz.) and Bill Cassidy, MD (R-La.), and Representatives Doris Matsui (D-Calif.) and David B. McKinley (R-W.Va.) wrote:

“We have received anecdotal reports that the nurse staffing agencies are vastly inflating the price, by two, three or more times pre-pandemic rates, and then taking 40% or more of the amount being charged to the hospitals for themselves in profits.”

They asked for an investigation by “one or more of the federal agencies with competition and consumer protection authority” to find any evidence of anti-competitive price patterns, price collusion, and higher pay for nurses due to the rate increases.

 Our opinion is that they will find out the rates are driven by supply ad demand. There isn’t not necessarily pricing fixing or gouging going on, just a shortage of nurses. 

Insider info: This started with Aya, who, at the start of the pandemic, where in New York they were charging like $350/hr bill rates. The hospital fired them and filed a complaint [1]. 

We don’t think this will have any impact on nurses as they have been underpaid for years. The market dictates the rate, not the agencies. Don’t forget that the hospitals got $35,000 for every Covid patient. 

What does AMN Healthcare say about this? 

AMN Healthcare is the largest travel nursing company, with a 17% market share, and most significant in allied healthcare staffing, with a 12% market share [2].

Kelly Rakowski, chief operating officer for strategic talent solutions at AMN Healthcare, wrote in an email to MedPage in a general response that its “pricing is agreed upon directly with our healthcare organization clients. Inflationary pressures and demand drive up the wages needed to attract clinicians to open positions. Any price increases are driven primarily by the compensation directly to healthcare practitioners.”

Several things contributed to the healthcare shortage; it was not only a national pandemic. The pandemic did two things: Increasing the direct number of patients needing care and driving some nurses out of the healthcare system due to burnout. 

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the seasonally adjusted number of nursing and residential care facility staff on payrolls nationwide dropped by 157,000 from October 2020 to October 2021, to just under 3 million.

Hospitals in states like Pennsylvania and Dewelare say the hospitals cannot compete with staffing agency pay rates, which makes them unable to retain local nursing staff. 

Travel Nursing Fun Facts

The most popular contract spots are Texas, California, and New York. 

The most popular cities for travel nurses are: 

  • Denver, Colorado
  • New York, New York
  • Austin, Texas
  • Tucson, Arizona
  • San Diego, California
  • Dallas, Texas.

Only about 20% of people that start traveling go back to a perm job for more than two years. The highest paying contract for 36hrs is $5,000-$6,000 per week, gross [3].

The lowest paying contract for 36hrs is $2,000 per week, gross. 

Nurses will not travel for less than $2,000 per week, gross.

To watch the full episode, click here for more 👇👇👇


0:00 Introduction
0:48 Cup of Nurses Introduction
2:33 Episode Introduction
3:00 Are Staffing Agencies Overcharging?
4:03 Letter about staffing agencies that are overcharging
10:48 How travel nursing agencies work
13:33 What AMN Healthcare say about this?
23:58 Who’s paying for FEMA nurses?
26:31 Travel Nursing fun facts

What is the Metaverse?

What is the Metaverse?

What is the Metaverse?

What is the Metaverse? The term “metaverse” is the latest buzzword to capture the tech industry’s imagination. Think of it as the internet brought to life in a virtual environment you can go inside by looking at a screen. It is a world of endless, interconnected virtual communities. It is a world where people can work, meet, or play. And these make use of virtual reality headsets, AG glasses, phone apps, and others.

The Facebook Update 

2021 –The parent company of the social network Facebook was renamed from “Facebook, Inc.” to “Meta Platforms”. Its chairman Mark Zuckerberg. Declared a company committed to developing a metaverse ecosystem.

Many augmented and virtual reality concepts are presented through the underlying technology. But it remains in or has yet to enter development. FB is currently investing 10 billion into the development of Meta. 
What is the thesis for the Metaverse based on Mr. Zuckerberg? To be the next frontier in social connection, the same way that social media connected people in 2004?

What will you be able to do in the Metaverse?

Things like going to a virtual concert, online trips, and buying and trying on digital clothing. The metaverse is also a game-changer for the work-from-home shift amid the pandemic. Instead of seeing co-workers on a video call grid, employees could see them, with the Horizon Workrooms.
“A lot of the metaverse experience is going to be around being able to teleport from one experience to another,” Zuckerberg says. Video game companies also are taking a leading role. Epic Games, is the company behind the popular Fortnite video game. It has raised $1 billion from investors to help with its long-term plans for building the metaverse.

Virtual Reality vs Augmented Reality 

The distinctions between VR and AR come down to the devices they need and the experience itself. AR uses a real-world setting while VR is completely virtual. VR requires a headset device, but AR is accessed with a smartphone. AR enhances both the virtual and real world. Meanwhile, VR only enhances a fictional reality.
A good example of Augmented Reality on our phones was Pokemon GO.  These new, evolving technologies produce endless opportunities for businesses and employment. By 2022, the AR and VR market is projected to grow to $209.2 billion.

Will this be another way to get more data from me? 

It seems clear that Facebook wants to carry its business model. And that is based on using personal data to sell targeted advertising, into the metaverse. “Ads are going to continue being an important part of the strategy across the social media parts of what we do, and it will be a meaningful part of the metaverse, too,” Zuckerberg said in the company’s most recent earnings call. Is there more potential abuse for disinformation?

The Fourth Industrial Revolution

We are on the brink of a technological revolution that will alter the way we live, work and relate to one another:

  • The first was the industrial revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production.
  • Then the second one is using electric power to create mass production. 
  • The third used electronics and information technology to automate production. 
Now the Fourth Industrial Revolution is building on the Third, the digital revolution that has been occurring. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies. These technologies blur lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.
Billions of people connect by mobile devices, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity, and access to knowledge, are unlimited.
Growth of the fourth industrial revolution is happening versus, linear growth as in the other revolution. These possibilities will be multiplied by emerging technology breakthroughs in fields such as:
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Robotics
  • The Internet of Things
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • 3-D printing, nanotechnology
  • Biotechnology
  • Materials science
  • Energy storage
  • Quantum computing


The Journal of International Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation released an article titled “Transhumanism: the big fraud-towards digital slavery.” 

Transhumanism is promoted according to the World Transhumanist Association as a philosophy that advocates for the use of technology to overcome our biological limitations and transform the human condition [1].

The transhumanists state that adding technological implants and inserting DNA into human beings will improve their condition. Man would leave biological evolution and would begin an expansion based on technology, and the post-human species would be born. 

Essence of Transhumanism

The essence of Transhumanism is applying the so-called four emerging technologies that include:

  • Nanotechnology
  • Biotechnology 
  • Information technologies
  • Knowledge sciences in the human being (NBIC)

The transhumanists consider the body a deficient and obsolete object like “scrap” or “excess luggage.” It is to be replaced with a “better container.” The transhumanists hide two subjects:

  • Use of technological implants as a weapon against the citizen
  • And the method they are developing their dangerous projects, which are suspected to be illicit human experiments in the world.

Technological implants like brain nanobots might cause losing mind control and thus, the carriers can be controlled by others and lose their autonomy. They can be spied on permanently with the cerebral internet and can lose their privacy their memory can be deleted and can lose their identity. 

Thus, the humans who carry technological implants can be permanently spied on, and mentally controlled and they lose their identity. They can become human slaves at the service of transnational companies and economic powers.

Transhumanism Objective

The goal analysis reveals that transhumanism is only an intellectual swindle that leads to digital fascism. It is a society where the rich elites govern citizens with technological implants. They believe these people will be the digital slaves at the service of oligarchy.
The transhumanist symbol is the cyborg. It represents the man whose body abandons nature. For transhumanism, nature is an adversary. The goal is to have your body “as little carbon as possible”. It will be indifferent to the laws that rule the carbon as the transhumanist promotion summarizes it in Latin America:
“We are going to reinvent our biological constitutions and introduce silicon, steel, and microchips within us.” The transhumanist cyborgization according to its promoters will allow:
“Eliminating the death, improving the senses, having an infallible memory, increasing the intellectual capacity, having a greater physical performance and controlling the emotional responses.” 

A Different Aspect

Another aspect of transhumanism is the transformation produced by the technological implants in the body. It will make their sexuality unrecognizable. The transhuman will be an asexual being. The main icon of transhumanism in the media is Ray Kurzweil.

He worked on the Army Science Board in 2006. Kurzweil was always known as “the successor and legitimate heir of Thomas Edison” and was also cited by Forbes magazine as “the supreme thinking machine.”

In 1999, President Bill Clinton, at a ceremony in the White House, gave him the National Medal of technology. Transhumanism uses a series of advertising cliches, being the main ones: “innovation”, “evolution”, “excellence,” and “digital citizen,” and different advertising campaigns in which the most promoted intellectuals and businessmen like Elon Musk.

Larry Page and Nobel Prizes like Mario Vargas Llosa, who promote human robotization, participate. Most amazing is that despite the unrealistic and almost delirious affirmations of transhumanists. Their theories are advanced and supported at the highest official level globally and are promoted daily by the press. And most remarkable is that they do not have more opposition from scientists or intellectuals who even spread their unrealistic postulates.

Thus, prestigious institutions like the United Nations, US and European universities, and governments adopt transhumanism as a part of their government plan. In Latin America, one of the prominent companies suspected of developing transhumanism is the Peruvian health insurance company ESSALUD. Based on evidence from recent investigations.

When It All Begun

Transhumanist experimentation would have begun in 2009. It was during the administration of US President Barack Obama. President Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton coordinated organized crime with President Alan García Pérez and this, in turn, with the President of ESSALUD Fernando Barrios Ipenza. 

Barrios developed it secretly with the research units of Peruvian hospitals. He also involved the National Health Institute, the Peruvian state institution that gives the official certification for biomedical research in Peru, and the APRA, the party that governed Peru in that period. 

The research units of Latin American hospitals would be camouflaging the development of their million-dollar transhumanist projects. It also involved swindling patients, such as the research unit at the Sabogal Hospital. It is where neuroscience research projects funded by Bill Gates are developed. It aims to camouflage experiments on transhumanists of mental control and cerebral internet in this hospital.

The Alberto Sabogal Hospital is located near the only military base of the US Armed Forces in Latin America, the brain net: violating the privacy of university students [2].

Want to know more about Transhumanism? Check out the full Episode 78 here 👇


0:00 Introduction
1:58 Episode Introduction
4:15 Facebook is Now Meta
6:11 What will you be able to do in Metaverse?
15:17 Virtual Reality vs Augmented Reality
17:00 Will this be another way to get more data from me?
21:15 The First to Third International Revolution
25:10 The Fourth International Revolution

Importance of Sunlight and How Light Affects the Eyes

Importance of Sunlight and How Light Affects the Eyes

Importance of Sunlight and the Negative Effects of Artificial Light

The importance of sunlight plays a crucial part in human health and well-being. Among the benefits associated with sunlight are Vitamin D production, promoting sleep, and bone formation. It also helps with depression and anxiety.
Artificial light is something that has become a growing concern. Light from our phones, lamps, and TVs also has an impact on us. Some research has been showing blue light in particular has a harmful effect on the eyes and brain.


Benefits and Importance of Sunlight

There are many benefits of sunlight that your body can use. The main ones are vitamin D production which promotes sleep, helps with bone formation, and treats anxiety, and depression.

We can all say getting your skin hit by the sun is a simple pleasure we’ve all experienced. It’s interesting to note that almost all animals on this planet need sunlight. 


Vitamin D production

Vitamin D is a little different than the rest of the fat-soluble vitamins. Unlike the other four vitamins, Vitamin D is actually produced in the body. It is also available in small amounts in egg yolks and fish. But for it to be useful, it is first converted by the body. Sunlight’s ultraviolet B energy converts the precursor to Vitamin D3 in the body [1]

How the body converts vitamin D precursor to useable vitamin D:

  • Sun gives off UVB radiation that hits the skin and converts cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre-vitamin D3.
  • It is converted in the liver and kidneys to vitamin D3.
  • The type of vitamin D3 that is able to be used by the body is 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. 

Fun fact: Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones. It was the earliest life form for over 750 million years. Plants and animals that are often exposed to sunlight have the capacity to produce vitamin D.

It is why this is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis [2]. 

It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium. 1,25(OH)2D receptors (VDR) are present not only in the intestine and bone.

However, it is also found in a wide variety of other tissues, including the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, activated T and B lymphocytes, skin, gonads, etc. 1,25(OH)2D is one of the most potent substances to inhibit proliferation of both normal and hyperproliferative cells and induce them to mature.

Sleep Promotion

Once light enters the eye, it is then sensed by a particular group of cells on the retina. It is then carried to the brain and interpreted as information about the time of the day. The brain will then send signals throughout the body. This is to control organs and systems according to that time of day.
Natural sunlight affects your circadian rhythm. Sunlight regulates the circadian rhythm. It helps the body know when to decrease or increase melatonin levels. During the day, daylight lessens your melatonin. At night when there is no sunlight, melatonin is higher. It also prepares your body for sleep. It is also why you feel tired once the sun goes down.

Bone formation

Another importance of sunlight is bone formation. Vitamin D allows your body to absorb calcium. Calcium is necessary for building strong, healthy bones. Without these, bones cannot form in childhood. It can also lose mass, becomes weak, and breaks during adulthood. Even if you get enough calcium in your diet, your body will not absorb that calcium if you don’t get enough vitamin D:

  • Osteoclast: large multinucleated cell responsible for the dissolution and absorption of bone.
    • Take calcium out of the bone and release it into the bloodstream.
    • If there is not enough calcium in the blood there will be a problem with:
      • Nerve function
      • Muscle contraction
      • Blood clotting
      • Cardiac function
  • Osteoblasts: large cells responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both initial bone formation and later bone remodeling.

One study looked at the importance of sunlight in the production of Vitamin D on bone, muscle, and cartilage health. The study looked at all the receptors that are associated with vitamin d and the connection to certain vitamin D  deficient diseases. It concluded

“Understanding the relative contributions of direct and indirect actions of vitamin D on bone is complex. The cells in bone and cartilage contributing to skeletal formation and maintenance have both VDR and CYP27B1 and respond directly to both circulating 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D (circulating and endogenously produced).”

Dietary Calcium and Phosphate

However, these cells are also responsive to blood levels of calcium and phosphate, elements required for bone formation. Dietary calcium and phosphate can to some extent compensate for deficient vitamin D signaling, and vitamin D can compensate to some extent for deficiencies in calcium and phosphate. But all are involved.

Defining the optimal level of vitamin D to maintain bone health remains under debate. But achieving a level of 25OHD around 30 ng/mL is both safe and effective. Additional research will be necessary to determine whether this is the optimal level,” [3].

The second study said, Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.” [4].

Anxiety and Depression

The importance of sunlight and darkness triggers the release of hormones in your brain. Exposure to sunlight is thought to increase the brain’s release of a hormone called serotonin. Serotonin is associated with boosting mood and helping a person feel calm and focused.

When sunlight enters your eyes, it stimulates the parts of your retina that then cue your brain to produce serotonin. Serotonin appears to play a role in regulating mood, emotions, appetite, and digestion. The body uses serotonin to send messages between nerve cells, but it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, which means that the brain has to produce any serotonin it needs to use [5].

Scientists don’t know exactly what causes depression, but one theory is that it’s due to an imbalance of neurotransmitters, like serotonin, in the body. 

Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in COVID-19 Outcomes

Analyzed global daily reports of fatalities and recoveries from 239 locations from 22nd Jan 2020 to 9th April 2020. This is a previous study we mentioned from Cup of news EP 10.

We present historical evidence that vitamin D supplementation prevented past respiratory virus pandemics. There is a discussion on how molecular mechanisms of vitamin D action can prevent respiratory viral infections and protect against ARDS. In the study, they highlight vitamin D’s direct effect on the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which in concert with additional effects, can modify host responses thus preventing a cytokine storm and SARS-CoV-2-induced pathological changes.

Unfortunately, about 42% of the US population is vitamin D deficient with some populations having even higher levels of deficiency, including premenopausal women, those with poor nutrition habits, people over age 65, and Caucasians who avoid even minimal sun exposure, and those who take prescription medication long term.

*Note that screening for Vitamin D deficiency is not part of the standard protocol in the US

Study on Sunlight

The present study examined the influence of simulated sunlight and relative humidity on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols generated from viruses suspended in either simulated saliva or a culture medium at 20°C (68F). Simulated sunlight rapidly inactivated the virus in aerosols in either suspension matrix, with half-lives of less than 6 minutes, and 90% of the virus inactivated in less than 20 minutes for all simulated sunlight levels tested. 

Harmful effects of artificial light

Our bodies are evolved to the rhythms of the natural light-dark cycle day and night. The spread of artificial lighting means most people never experience truly dark nights anymore, which can cause problems with sleep patterns as humans’ circadian rhythm regulates core functions such as sleeping or waking up on an internal clock that depends upon darkness for validating information received through our eyes—such us noticing whether it’s daytime by judging how much brighter things appear than during “nighttime”.

Research suggests that artificial light at night can negatively affect human health, increasing risks for obesity, depression, sleep disorders, diabetes, breast cancer, and more.

Exposure to blue light at night is particularly harmful. Unfortunately, most LEDs used for outdoor lighting — as well as computer screens, TVs, and other electronic displays — create abundant blue light.

Blue Light

Nighttime exposure to blue light is particularly harmful [6]. LEDs used for outdoor lighting, computer screens, and TVs all emit a lot of that troublesome color which makes it hard for your body’s sight receptors to adjust accordingly- this causes insomnia as well as issues with hormonal regulation!

Maintaining an indoor ambiance during daylight hours can help you get better sleep at night time by giving those tired eyes something else other than bright displays or harsh florescent lights nearby so they don’t have any choice but close themselves off from the world due to lack of fatigue

Experts think digital eye strain, or computer vision syndrome, affects about 50% of computer users. Symptoms include dry, irritated eyes and blurred vision.

Blue light may also damage your retinas. That’s called phototoxicity. The amount of damage depends on wavelength and exposure time. Animal studies show even short exposure (a few minutes to several hours) may be harmful. A filter that cuts 94% of blue light has been shown to lessen the damage.

There’s evidence blue light could lead to permanent vision changes. Almost all blue light passes straight through to the back of your retina. Some research has shown blue light may increase the risk of macular degeneration, a disease of the retina.

Research shows blue light exposure may lead to age-related macular degeneration or AMD. One study found blue light triggered the release of toxic molecules in photoreceptor cells. This causes damage that may lead to AMD.

Blue Light and Sleep

Screen time, especially at night, is linked to poor sleep. The blue light from electronic devices messes with your circadian rhythm or sleep cycle. It signals your brain to wake up when it should be winding down. In one study, as little as 2 hours of exposure to blue light at night slowed or stopped the release of the sleep hormone melatonin [7]. Powering down your digital devices at least 3 hours before bedtime can help.

Blue Light and Cancer

Blue light exposure might raise your risk for certain cancers. One study found that people who work the night shift are at greater risk for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers.

  • Study participants subjected to higher levels of blue light (lights on during sleep cycles) had a 1.5 times higher risk for developing breast cancer and a two-fold higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to people who had less exposure to artificial light, the study researchers say [8].

Blue Light and Mental Health

Nighttime exposure to blue light was linked to depressive symptoms in animal studies [9]. But exposure to blue light during the day may have the opposite effect. It’s been used to treat a seasonal affective disorder or SAD. That’s a form of depression related to the changing of the seasons. Research shows 20 minutes of blue light exposure in the morning helps ease SAD symptoms. 

  • One study found that blue light deprivation (BLD) induced depression-like behavior in gerbils. Melatonin lost its rhythm, and corticosterone (CORT) levels decreased in the morning in the BLD group [10]

Learn more about the importance of sunlight by watching the full Episode 77 here 👇


0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
2:22 Episode Introduction
7:32 Benefits of Sunlight
7:59 Vitamin D Production
13:20 Sleep Promotion
13:45 Bone Formation
19:20 Anxiety and Depression
​​22:16 Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in COVID-19 Outcomes
26:55 Harmful Effects of Artificial Light
27:50 Blue Light
35:00 Blue Light and Mental Health