Alzheimer’s Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Alzheimer’s Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurologic disorder that causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and brain cells to die. It is one of the most common causes of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that affect a person’s ability to function independently [1]. Here are known facts about this disease:

  • Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60-80% of dementia cases.
  • It is not a normal part of aging. Drastic and progressive memory decline over time in older adults is not a normal part of aging. There is also an early onset of Alzheimer’s that can start before the age of 65.
  • Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease, and it gets worse over time. 
  • There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease.
  • The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations.
  • As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer’s disease develops severe memory impairment. They will lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

People with Alzheimer’s may:

  • Repeat statements and questions over and over.
  • Forget conversations, appointments, or events, and do not remember them later.
  • Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations.
  • Get lost in familiar places.
  • Eventually, forget the names of family members and everyday objects.
  • Have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts, or take part in conversations [2].


What do we know about Alzheimer’s disease?

The psychological features of Alzheimer’s disease are aggregation and accumulation of different amyloid-beta. Research shows that when amyloid-beta is no longer cleared from the brain. It accumulates.
This leads to neurodegeneration long before the symptoms of Alzheimer’s are visible.
It is most likely that the disease is the result of the buildup of two proteins in the brain. These proteins are the amyloid-beta and tau. It is also thought to be due to age and/or genetic factors [3].

What is Beta-amyloid?

Beta-amyloid is a small piece of a larger protein called “amyloid precursor protein”. Scientists have not yet determined APP’s normal function; they know how it appears to work.
In its complete form, APP extends from the inside of brain cells to the outside. It is by passing through the fatty membrane around the cell. When APP is “activated” to do its normal job, it is then cut by other proteins.
It separates into smaller sections that stay inside and outside cells. There are several different ways APP can be cut. Under some circumstances, one of the pieces produced is beta-amyloid [4].
Why is beta-amyloid a prime suspect in Alzheimer’s disease?
Beta-amyloid is “stickier” than other fragments produced when APP is cut. It accumulates in stages into microscopic amyloid plaques. These are often considered a hallmark of a brain affected by Alzheimer’s.
The pieces first form small clusters called oligomers. It then chains of clusters called fibrils, then “mats” of fibrils called beta-sheets. Their final stage is plaques, which contain clumps of beta-sheets and other substances.
An amyloid hypothesis states that these stages of beta-amyloid aggregation disrupt cell-to-cell communication. It also activates immune cells. These immune cells trigger inflammation, and the brain cells are then destroyed [5].

Gut and Alzheimer’s Disease

Recent research shows a potential link between our gut and Alzheimer’s disease. As we have found out, a big part of our immune system lives in the gut [6].

With this information, it is good to speculate that a good part of our immune system lies in the gut. Alzheimer’s is a disease of inflammation. Then there may be some relationship between the gut and Alzheimer’s.

Looking at some research, we realized that: 

  • Imbalances in gut microbes could contribute to amyloid plaques in the brain. It raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, researchers suggest.
  • Researchers noted previous studies have shown that those with the condition tend to have altered gut microbiota. It is compared to those without dementia.
  • Many lifestyle strategies can boost gut health. It includes healthy eating, exercise, stress management, and getting quality sleep.
  • People that develop Alzheimer’s have a different gut biome than people that don’t.
  • People that have Alzheimer’s have a different gut biome compared to people without it.

Changes to your diet can play a role in developing Alzheimer’s 

  • Proteins from lean meat and fish break down into amino acids that form the basis of brain cells.
  • Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains provide essential carbohydrates. These are glucose, giving the brain much-needed fuel.
  • Healthy fats like omega-3 fatty acids support the immune system. It helps lower inflammation and shield your brain from damage.
  • Fermented foods can increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut. It also helps improve both gut and brain health.
  • Drinking enough water helps hydrate the brain cells. It provides them with their needed electrolytes and water to function.
We are human beings, not machines. This means that every system and function in our body is also linked. Each system affects another.
One study drew the relationship between gut microbiome composition. It also shows the relationship between sleep habits and cognitive flexibility. Sleep, diet, and cognition have been shown to correlate. 
Not only does sleep help your microbiome, but it works the other way as well. A healthy gut will give you a better night of sleep. It is according to W. Christopher Winter, MD. Dr. Winter is the president of Charlottesville Neurology and Sleep Medicine. He is also the author of The Sleep Solution.
“Sleep disturbances can contribute to gastrointestinal issues, which can worsen your sleep problems,” he says. “Whatever your goal might be, whether it’s better gut health or improved brain health, it’s easiest to start with establishing good habits around the basics, like sleep, food, exercise, and mindfulness.” [7].

An article in Science Daily stated that:

The following universities conducted an important study on Alzheimer’s
  • University of Geneva (UNIGE)
  • University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) in Switzerland
  • National Research and Care Center for Alzheimer’s
  • Psychiatric Diseases Fatebenefratelli in Brescia
  • University of Naples
  • IRCCS SDN Research Center in Naples
All confirmed the correlation between the gut microbiota and the development of amyloid plaques. These were found in the brain which they believe to be the origin of Alzheimer’s disease.

Proteins produced by certain intestinal bacteria identified in patients’ blood could indeed modify the interaction between the immune and the nervous systems and trigger the disease. 

These results, to be discovered in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, make it possible to envisage new preventive strategies based on the modulation of the microbiota of people at risk [8].

A study published on Feb 25, 2021, also saw a similar correlation.

This study assessed whether behavioral and cognitive performance in 6-month-old AppNL-F, AppNL-G-F, and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice was associated with the gut microbiome and whether the genotype modulates this association.

The integrated gut microbiome hippocampal DNA methylation analysis revealed a positive relationship between amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) within the Lachnospiraceae family and methylation at the Apoe gene.

Hence, these microbes may elicit an impact on AD-relevant behavioral and cognitive performance via epigenetic changes in AD-susceptibility genes in neural tissue, or such changes in the epigenome can produce alterations in intestinal physiology that affect the growth of these taxa in the gut microbiome [9].

Foods to Avoid When Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease

People who don’t develop Alzheimer’s have been shown to eat a more diversified diet. It also includes a diversity of healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, seafood, and meat. 

The unfortunate news is that most foods that increase cognitive decline and potentially play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease are also staples in the modern American diet. 

  • White foods: bread, white rice, pasta, white flour, and sugar.
    • It causes a spike in glucose and insulin, potentially causing inflammation and damage to the brain.
  • Processed meats and cheeses: American cheese, canned cheese, mozzarella sticks, sausage, canned meats, cold cuts, etc.
    • Build up amyloid in your body.

Want to learn more? Check out the full Episode 76 here 👇


0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
1:42 Episode Introduction
4:33 What is Alzheimer’s Disease
8:03 What is beta-amyloid?
13:27 Gut and Alzheimer’s disease
15:40 Changes to your diet can play a role in developing Alzheimer’s
21:50 Study about gut biome relating to Alzheimer’s disease
28:24 Foods to avoid when preventing Alzheimer’s


The Best Exercise and Diet For Longevity

The Best Exercise and Diet For Longevity

The Best Exercise and Diets for Longevity

What are the best exercise and diets that you can follow for longevity? If you want to learn about this, our episode can explain that to you.

Exercise has changed both of our lives since we were young. We played sports, ran around playing cops and robbers, biked around our neighborhoods, and now we are involved in combat sports.

Even a simple, 30-minute workout run in the morning can help achieve a mental sharpness ready to kick start the day.

Blood cells that don’t move cannot transport oxygen. It goes the same for the lungs, heart, and spine – all need a motion for proper joint nutrition.

That said, you must always have the best exercise and diets included in your daily life. This way, you can perform activities of daily living and stimulate the joint-brain pathways.

Both are required for brain and body function. That said, without movement, there is no life, and it’s understandable on a purely biological level.

It’s the same way with diet, believe it or not. Eating foods high in nutrients means they can be absorbed well by the body and delivered to cells.

Eating high-fiber foods ensures timely digestion and elimination of wastes, whereas overconsumption of animal fats and low-fiber foods leads to colonic inactivity and constipation.

Blue Zones

To understand longevity, we need to look at the Centenarians, which are located mainly in the world’s blue zones.

Blue Zones are regions or parts of the world where a higher than the usual number of people live much longer than average. The Five “Blue Zones” have been posited: 

  • Okinawa, Japan
  • Sardinia, Italy
  • Nicoya, Costa Rica
  • Icaria, Greece
  • Loma Linda, California

Here are some characteristics of people inhabiting the Blue Zones:

  1. Moderate, regular physical activity
  2. Life purpose
  3. Stress reduction
  4. Moderate caloric intake
  5. Plant-based diet
  6. Moderate alcohol intake, especially wine
  7. Engagement in spirituality or religion
  8. Involvement in family life
  9. Active in social life

Dr. Valter Longo is one of the world’s experts on longevity. He is the director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles.

Dr. Longo has studied longevity for more than 30 years and has concluded how to exercise to increase a healthy lifespan. His research shows that physical activity is the number 2 factor affecting lifespan, behind the only diet.

Here is the routine that Dr. Longo recommends to maximize your longevity: 

1. Walk fast for an hour every day.

This doesn’t have to happen all at once, be conscious of where you can implement walking, for example, a 15-minute walk away from your house to the coffee shop instead of driving.

Find walkable places and go there every day.

2. Do cardiovascular exercise for 2.5–5 hours per week.

The key is working your body to the point of breathing rapidly and sweating. Running, biking or swimming are all great options.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends doing exercise that increases a person’s heart rate to between 50 to 85 percent of their maximum heart rate. This range is called the target heart rate zone.

3. Use weight-training or weight-free exercises to strengthen muscles

You have more than 600 muscles in your body that contribute to about 40% of your total body weight. By exercising, you are strengthening your muscles, which improves stability, balance, and coordination.

A large Australian study from 2015 of over 200,000 people aged 45–75 found that those who exercised (at moderate to vigorous levels) at least 2.5 hours per week had a 47% reduction in overall mortality.

Going up to 5 hours per week led to a 54% reduction in mortality.

The Best Diet for Longevity 

The diet suggestions are based on Dr. Valter Longo and his book: The Longevity Diet

  • Eat mostly vegan, plus a little fish, limiting meals with fish to a maximum of two or three per week. Choose fish, crustaceans (crab, lobster, shrimp), and mollusks (Oysters, squid, Oysters, Scallops) with a high omega-3, omega-6, and vitamin B12 content (salmon, anchovies, sardines, cod, sea bream, trout, clams, shrimp.  Pay attention to the quality of the fish, choosing those with low levels of mercury.
  • If you are below the age of 65, keep protein intake low (0.31 to 0.36 grams per pound of body weight). That comes to 40 to 47 grams of protein per day for a person weighing 130 pounds and 60 to 70 grams of protein per day for someone weighing 200 to 220 pounds.
  • Over the age of 65, you should slightly increase protein intake but also increase consumption of fish, eggs, white meat, and products derived from goats and sheep to preserve muscle mass. Consume beans, chickpeas, green peas, and other legumes as your main source of protein.
  • Minimize saturated fats from animal and vegetable sources (meat, cheese) and sugar, and maximize good fats and complex carbs. Eat whole grains and high quantities of vegetables (tomatoes, broccoli, carrots, legumes, etc.) with generous amounts of olive oil (3 tablespoons per day) and nuts (1 ounce per day).
  • Follow the best exercise and diets with high vitamin and mineral content, supplemented with a multivitamin buffer every three days.
  • Select ingredients among those discussed in this book that your ancestors would have eaten.
  • Based on your weight, age, and abdominal circumference, decide whether to have two or three meals per day.
  • If you are overweight or tend to gain weight easily, consume two meals a day: breakfast and either lunch or dinner, plus two low-sugar (less than 5 grams) snacks with fewer than 100 calories each. If you are already at a normal weight, or if you tend to lose weight easily or are over 65 and of normal weight, eat three meals a day and one low-sugar (less than 3 to 5 grams) snack with fewer than 100 calories.
  • Confine all eating to within a twelve-hour period; for example, start after 8 a.m. and end before 8 p.m. Don’t eat anything within three to four hours of bedtime.

Want to change your diet? Learn more about it in this full episode 👇👇👇



0:00 Cup of Nurses Introduction
2:00 Episode Introduction
3:36 Exercise
6:07 Blue Zones
7:50 Walk fast for an hour a day
10:35 Cardiovascular exercise
13:25 Weight training
19:40 Best Diet for Longevity



Nutrition Label Certifications and Healthy Snack Bar Choices

Nutrition Label Certifications and Healthy Snack Bar Choices

Food Labels and Healthy Snack Options

When it comes to what snacks or even foods to eat, always look at the nutrition label certifications and ingredients.

There are various choices in grocery stores, so there is no excuse for the inability to find one that fits you. You need to watch out for their marketing and what they promote.

Food Labels Explained

Besides the nutrition label for food labels, there is another label to pay attention to. That is the loss of certifications.
We have found that not all these so-called “certifications” are actually certified. That said, it would be best if you pay attention to food labels and what they contain.


USDA’s National Organic Program regulates labeling requirements for organic agricultural products. Organic labels are found on produce, dairy, meat, processed foods, condiments, and beverages.
Food products labeled as “organic” must contain at least 95% organic ingredients. It means no synthetic growth hormones, antibiotics, or pesticides. No biotechnology, artificial ingredients, or irradiation is used in production or processing, too [1]
Products containing at least 70 percent organic ingredients are produced without synthetic methods. They are labeled “made with organic ingredients. Yet, they cannot use the USDA organic seal on their packaging.
Farmers pay $1,200 and add an extra $700 or more for a new organic farm and organic processor to be “certified”.  


Certified Naturally Grown

The food was grown using the same standards as those for organic, but not on a farm certified by the USDA’s National Organic Program.

Some farmers have criticized the cost and process they need to participate in the USDA’s organic program.

It is an alternative, non-governmental certification system where other farmers act as inspectors in a program administered by a non-profit organization called Certified Naturally Grown.

 “Natural” is a term present in many food products, so look closely at the label. The Certified Naturally Grown title indicates that someone certifies that it is natural, rather than just using “Natural” for marketing purposes.

Fair Trade

Fair Trade USA enforces fair trade standards. Fairtrade products must be produced in accordance with the following guidelines: Workers must receive fair wages, safe and equitable working conditions, and the right to join trade unions; child or forced labor is completely prohibited.

Crops must also be grown, produced, and processed in a manner that supports social development, economic development, and environmental development.

Fairtrade standards have been established for coffee, tea, cocoa, honey, bananas, juices, cotton, flowers, gold, rice, spices and herbs, sports balls, wine, composite products, fresh fruit, and sugar. 

Animal Welfare Approved

Animal Welfare Approved (AWA) is a division of the non-profit organization Animal Welfare Institute that started in 2006.

Its standards cover the way it’s participating farms raise their animals (including beef and dairy cattle, bison, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and rabbits).

AWA states that the basic premise of their standards is that animals must be able to behave naturally and be in a state of physical and psychological well-being.

They only certify family farms (charging no fees to participating farmers) and state that animals must be raised on pasture or range.

American Humane Certified

The American Humane Certified program was created by the American Humane Association in 2000 to ensure that animals raised for dairy, poultry, beef, veal, goat, swine, turkey, and bison products are raised in a humane manner.

These guidelines, created with input from animal science experts, ensure that livestock has access to clean and sufficient food and water.

It also checks the healthy living environment and that staff and managers are thoroughly trained to care for animals in a humane manner.

Non-GMO Project Verified

The Non-GMO Project is a non-profit organization that provides the only third-party labeling program in North America for products grown without using genetic engineering.

They verify that the process products go through, from seed to shelf, are produced according to their rigorous best practices for GMO avoidance.


USDA has a grass-fed standard for ruminant animals like cows and goats, which states that these animals must be fed only grass and forage during the growing season.

The American Grassfed Association is one organization that certifies beef, bison, dairy, lamb, and goat that is fed only on pasture, in addition to being raised without antibiotics, synthetic hormones, confinement, and with standards for high animal welfare.

Other animals, like chickens and pigs, can be pasture-raised (and USDA organic standards require at least some access to pasture).

Still, there are currently no specific certification standards for non-ruminant animals being grass-fed or pastured.

Non-Certified Food Labels

The following nutrition labels depend on farmer and processor information to support the claim that the food products were raised in compliance with each set of standards.

They do not go through third-party testing or certification. They do have certain standards they must prove. 

Hormone-free/RBGH free

This label means that the farmer has chosen not to inject his or her cows with any artificial growth hormones, like rBGH, a genetically engineered growth hormone.

The nutrition labels are also used on beef and chicken products, where the animal was raised without growth hormones or steroids.

However, the USDA prohibits giving hormones to chickens, so the label doesn’t mean much there — all chicken you buy will be hormone-free whether it’s labeled or not.

Hormones are not allowed in raising hogs or poultry. Therefore, the claim “no hormones added” cannot be used on the labels of pork or poultry unless it is followed by a statement that says, “Federal regulations prohibit the use of hormones.

Raised without antibiotics

Chickens, pigs, and cattle raised on industrial farms are routinely fed low doses of antibiotics (the same drugs we rely on to keep ourselves and our families in good health) to make them grow faster and compensate for overcrowding and unsanitary living conditions.

This label states the meat or dairy was raised without the use of antibiotics.

The following are not certified or tested by any third-party regulatory agency and do not have a set of standards:


While many products have “all-natural” nutrition labels or packaging, there is no universal standard or definition for this claim.


Free-range poultry is poultry that spends part of its time outside and does not live in cages. These could be chickens, turkeys, or ducks. The USDA does not have a legal definition of free-range.

Thus, free-range chicken eggs, beef, or pork are not regulated.

Healthy Snack Bars

There are so many varieties of snack bars it can seem impossible to choose from. With a wide variety, there will also be a variety of healthy choices.

Some use marketing gimmicks that you should stay away from. Just because the box looks nice does not always mean it should be your choice.

While they sound healthy, always pay attention to the nutrition label certifications. It will tell you what you are actually consuming, no matter how healthy it seems. 

Labels to Pay Attention To 

Before buying food that’s packed, make sure to pay attention to the following. It will give you an idea of what you are actually putting inside your body [2].


This is the most important place to look in nutrition label certifications. You should always try to avoid ingredients like high fructose corn syrup, soy protein isolate, and inulin (“fake fiber”).

The first ingredient or ingredients should be whole foods like apples, bananas, dates, etc.

Protein content

Protein and amino acids are the building blocks of your muscle. They are also for optimal organs and function.
Many dieticians recommend getting snack bars with at least 5g of protein. But many protein bars are made of fruits so they also recommend some protein to go with it.
Protein is important because it supports and strengthens your cartilage, bones, and muscles. It also boosts your immune system and regular functions.
It will also up the satisfaction and satiating factor of your snack. Protein should also be a part of the nutrition label certifications of the food you eat. 


This is something the majority of people never get enough of; we are even guilty. It is important to try and get as much of it whenever you can.

It will make you feel fuller for a longer period of time. Fiber helps to regulate digestion, improve heart health, prevent type 2 diabetes, combat inflammation, and reduce your risk for cancer.

Sugar content

Beware of added sugar! Try to select a bar that doe not contain any added sugars. There is a difference between natural sugar and added sugar.

Snack bars will always have carbs and sugar because they usually come from fruit but avoid the added ones. 

RX Bar

Lara Bar

Quest Bar

Natures Bakery



Kind Bar


Cliff Bar

Don’t skip reading the labels. Learn more about them in this video 👇👇👇


0:00 Introduction
2:09 Episode Introduction
2:30 Food Labels Explained
3:19 Organic
4:41 Certified Naturally Grown
7:50 Fair Trade
8:40 Animal Welfare Approved
11:59 American Humane Certified
12:20 Non-GMO Project Certified
15:34 Grassfed
18:40 Non-certified Food Labels
10:06 Hormone-free / RBGH-free
20:11 Raised without Antibiotics
20:54 All-natural
21:43 Free-range
23:30 Healthy Snack Bars
23:50 Ingredients
24:18 Protein Content
26:05 Fiber
27:02 Sugar Content
28:59 Most Popular Snack Bars

Nutrition Labels and Nurses Losing Their Licenses

Nutrition Labels and Nurses Losing Their Licenses

Nutrition Labels and Nurses Losing Their Licenses

The updated nutrition labels appear on the majority of food packages. Manufacturers with $10 million or more in annual sales were required to update their labels by January 1, 2020.

Manufacturers with less than $10 million in annual food sales needed to update their labels by January 1, 2021.

Makers of most single-ingredient sugars, such as honey and maple syrup and certain cranberry products, must be changed until July 1, 2021.

FDA Changes Nutrition labels

How much people eat and drink has changed since the last serving size requirements were published in 1993.

For example, the reference amount used to set a serving of ice cream was previously 1/2 cup but is now 2/3 cup. The reference amount used to establish a serving of soda changed from 8 ounces to 12 ounces.

New Label, What is the difference?

Goal: To make sure consumers have access to more recent and accurate nutrition information about the foods they are eating, FDA-required changes based on updated scientific information, new nutrition, and public health research, more recent dietary recommendations from expert groups, and input from the public [1].

  • Servings: larger, bolder type
  • Serving sized updated
  • Calories: Larger type ( Calories from fat removed) 
  • Requiring nutrients – the list of nutrients that are required or permitted to be declared is being updated. It includes Vitamin D and potassium on the label. Calcium and iron will continue to be required. Vitamins A and C are no longer needed but can be formed voluntarily. They can voluntarily declare the gram amount for other vitamins and minerals. 

According to Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, Vitamin D and potassium are nutrients Americans don’t always get enough of, and when lacking, are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease.

Vitamin D is essential for its role in bone health, and potassium helps to lower blood pressure.

Daily Values Update

In the early 1990s, American diets lacked Vitamins A and C, but now Vitamins A and C deficiencies in the general population are rare. Manufacturers are still able to list these vitamins voluntarily.

  • Daily Values Updated: Daily values for nutrients like sodium, dietary fiber, and vitamin D have been updated based on newer scientific evidence from the Institute of Medicine and other reports such as the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report. 

For the nutrients with DVs that are going up, the %DVs may go down. For example, the DV for total fat has been updated from 65g to 78g.

That means that a packaged food with 36g of total fat in one serving (previously 55% DV) has 46% DV. See below for a side-by-side comparison of the information on the original and new nutrition labels.

For example, the DV for sodium has been updated from 2,400mg to 2,300mg. That means that a packaged food with 1,060mg of sodium in one serving (previously 44% DV) now has 46% DV.

  • New: “Added sugars,” in grams and as percent Daily Value, must be included on the nutrition labels. There are different labeling requirements for single-ingredient sugars.
  • Consuming too many added sugars can make it challenging to meet nutrient needs while staying within calorie limits. 
  • Updated: The footnote now better explains what percent Daily Value means. It reads: “*The % Daily Value tells you how much a nutrient in a serving of food contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.”
  • While continuing to require “Total Fat,” “Saturated Fat,” and “Trans Fat” on the label, “Calories from Fat” was removed because research shows the type of fat is more important than the amount.

Serving sizes example: 

  • Originally, the serving size for ice cream: 1/2 Cup = 200 calories
  • New Serving Size for ice cream 2/3 = 270 calories
  • For soft drinks, 12-ounce (120 calories) and 20-ounce (200 calories) bottles will be labeled as one serving since people are likely to drink the entire amount in either size container in one sitting. 
Nutrient Original Daily Value Updated Daily Value
Calcium 1000mg 1300mg
Dietary Fiber 25g 28g
Fat 65g 78g
Magnesium 400mg 420mg
Manganese 2mg 2.3mg
Phosphorus 1000mg 1250mg
Potassium 3500mg 4700mg


The total intake of Carbohydrates decreased from 300g to 275g. Protein stayed the same at 50g. Saturated Fats remained at 20g. Cholesterol remained at 300mg. 

Nurses Losing Their Licenses

RaDonda Vaught, a former Vanderbilt nurse criminally indicted for accidentally killing a patient with a medication error in 2017, was stripped of her license by the Tennessee Board of Nursing in July.

She still faces a pending criminal trial, including a charge of reckless homicide and the possibility of jail time, set for next year.

Vaught could not find Versed, she overrode a cabinet safeguard that unlocked more powerful medications, then searched for “VE” in the cabinet’s search tool and chose vecuronium by mistake.

Vaught then overlooked numerous warning signs that she selected the wrong drug, including a label on the medical bottle that read “WARNING: PARALYZING AGENT,” according to court records.

Statement from Vaught: “I won’t ever be the same person,” Vaught said, failing to hold back tears. “When I started being a nurse, I told myself that I wanted to take care of people the way I would want my grandmother to be taken care of.

I would have never wanted something like this to happen to her, or anyone that I loved, or anyone that I don’t even know. I know the reason that this patient is no longer here is because of me.”

Reasons Nurses Lose Their License

Most nurses enter the profession with the best interest in mind. But sometimes, things happen that we cannot control.

For example, in the Boards of Nursing (BON), many states will suspend a nurse’s license if she has been arrested or convicted of a DUI, public intoxication, or diversion, which is taking drugs intended for patients.

Stealing or possessing controlled substances or illegal drugs may also result in a revoked license [1]

Each year 7,000 nurses have some discipline put on their licenses. When a Board disciplines a nurse, it can usually do 1 of 4 things.

  • Give the nurse a reprimand which is like a slap on the wrist.
  • Place the nurse’s license on probation.
  • Suspend the license.
  • Revoke the license.

Let’s dive deeper into the reasons why nurses can lose their licenses. 

Failure to pay Child Support 

    1. If a nurse fails to pay child support, the courts may temporarily suspend their nursing license.
    2. All 50 states have provisions that authorize the suspension or revocation of licenses for failure to pay child support; this includes professional and occupational licenses. 
    3. The state’s requirements may also include the need to comply with the court’s rulings within a set timeframe or risk permanently losing the license.

Patient Abuse and Neglect

    1. Abusing patients is a serious matter and is more likely to revoke licenses. Elderly patient abuse is the most prevalent. 
    2. First discussed in the 1970s, abuse of older adults was a largely hidden, private matter for many years rather than an issue of social, health, or criminal concern [2].
    3. As of 2018, there were 52.4 million adults 65 and over in the United States. By 2040, that number is expected to climb to 80 million, comprising nearly 21% of the total population.
    4. Global estimates from a recent meta-analysis reflect that one in six elders, or 15.7%, in the community experienced past-year abuse.

Sexual Misconduct

    1. Sexual misconduct may include boundary violations between nurses and patients or nurses and other healthcare workers.
    2. In most states, nurse-patient relationships are a significant violation and cause for disciplinary sanctions, including the revocation of a license.
    3. Sexual misconduct outside the workplace, including convictions, may also result in disciplinary action. 

Drug-Related Violations

    1. It is estimated that 10% of nurses will misuse drugs or alcohol at some time during their careers.
    2. Nurses report higher rates of prescription drug abuse due to their access to these medications at the workplace.
    3. Along with working while impaired, nurses have lost licenses due to drug or alcohol-related convictions.
    4. Diverting drugs for personal use, sale, or distribution to other patients provides grounds for losing a license.
    5. If you have previous offenses filed with the nursing board, you’ll be placed on probation – this can restrict your practice. If you violate those terms, your license may be revoked.  

Falsifying of Documentations

    1. For example, falsifying documentation can happen when you give your patient a little extra morphine to help him get through the night, but you don’t record it. Whatever the case, falsifying patient records is grounds for a license being suspended.
    2. Nurses who have a suspended license may provide an employer with a fake one, thinking that it won’t matter once the suspension is up.

Breach of patient confidentiality 

    1. Patient privacy is a big deal, and it’s the responsibility of nurses and other healthcare providers to protect that information. 


Getting off probation scenario: (This is in the state of Indiana) A nurse must petition the Board and attend a hearing where the nurse is put under oath, and a court reporter transcribes the proceedings.

The nurse then must present an opening statement, call witnesses, introduce evidence, cross-examine any opposing witnesses, and then offer a closing argument.

This is a legal proceeding, and the nurse has a right to be represented by an attorney.

The nurse must show that she has complied with every requirement of the probation and present that the conditions that led to her license being placed on probation are no longer present.


The revocation of a nurse’s license is the most severe discipline that a board of nursing can impose. The nurse immediately loses their license and cannot legally practice nursing.

The individual can apply for a re-licensure based on the board’s requirements. Requirements include a period before which re-licensure is not possible (e.g., 2 years) and the retaking of the NCLEX exam, as examples.

It is important to note that re-licensure is at the board’s discretion [3].

Learn more about nutrition labels and nurses losing their licenses, click here for more 👇


0:00 Introduction with the hosts/affiliates/updates
2:01 FDA Changes Nutrition labels
4:15 New Label, What is the difference?
22:15 Nurses losing their licenses
30:10 Reasons Nurses Lose Their License
31:03 Failure to pay Child support
33:46 Patient Abuse and Neglect
37:52 Sexual Misconduct
40:47 Drug-Related Violations
43:44 Falsifying documentation
46:28 Breach of patient confidentiality
47:25 Probation
48:25 Revocation
50:36 Concluding Statement and Thoughts




EP 56: Nitrates, Nitrites and NMN

EP 56: Nitrates, Nitrites and NMN

Nitrates and Nitrites

Manufacturers add nitrites to meat to preserve them. They’re the reason why cured meat is pink or red. In beef, nitrites turn into nitric oxide. It reacts with proteins in the meat, changing its color and helping preserve it [1].

Nitrates are relatively stable by themselves and not likely to cause direct harm. However, bacteria in your mouth and other enzymes in the body can convert nitrates into harmful nitrites.

Most of the nitrites we encounter aren’t consumed directly but are converted from nitrates. Nitrites can either turn into:

  • nitric oxide, which is beneficial for the body
  • nitrosamines, which can be harmful

The relationship between dietary nitrates/nitrites and health is a lot more complex than just saying “they’re bad for us.”

For example, beetroot juice’s high natural nitrate content has been credited with lowering blood pressure and enhancing exercise performance.

Nitrates are also the active ingredient in some medications for angina.

The difference between the nitrates in vegetables and meat is that the plants absorb them from the ground, while it is an additive for meats.

When the nitrites are ingested, one of the things that happen is they react in the acidic environment of the stomach and form nitrosamines.

  • Nitrosamines are considered to be cancerous and linked to bowel cancer.

For this to occur, amines need to be present, chemicals related to ammonia found abundantly in protein foods.

Nitrosamines can also be created directly in foods through high-heat cooking, like fried bacon.

Nitrites and Cancer Link

A total of 22 articles consisted of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) [1].

  • High nitrate intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer.

According to the IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer, run by WHO states:

Nitrates or nitrites found primarily in meat sources are probably carcinogenic to humans. Conclusions from epidemiologic studies are somewhat mixed.

High nitrate intake may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer, whereas nitrite intake may increase the risk of glioma and thyroid and gastric cancers [2].

The North American Meat Institute

 “…Nitrates and Nitrites provide a critical food safety function by helping to prevent Botulism and other foodborne illnesses.”

What is NMN

NMN is short for nicotinamide mononucleotide, a molecule naturally occurring in all life forms. NMN is the precursor of the essential molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) [3].

NAD+ is an essential coenzyme required for all cellular life and function. Coenzymes are  ‘helper’ molecules that enzymes need in order to function. 

Why is NAD and MNM Important

As organisms grow older, they accrue DNA damage due to environmental factors such as radiation, pollution, and imprecise DNA replication.

According to the current aging theory, the accumulation of DNA damage is the main cause of aging.

Almost all cells contain the ‘molecular machinery’ to repair this damage. This machinery consumes NAD+ and energy molecules. Therefore, excessive DNA damage can drain valuable cellular resources.

  • One important DNA repair protein, PARP (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), depends on NAD+ to function. Older individuals experience decreased levels of NAD+. The accumulation of DNA damage as a result of the normal aging process leads to increased PARP, which causes decreased NAD+ concentration. Any further DNA damage in the mitochondria exacerbates this depletion.

NAD+ plays an especially active role in metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, the TCA Cycle (AKA Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid cycle), and the electron transport chain, which occurs in our mitochondria and is how we obtain cellular energy.

It has been shown to effects many parts and functions of our body. Research is currently looking at the potential effects NAD might have on human health and lifespan. 

Potential for NAD


  • NAD+ is the fuel that helps sirtuins (Sirtuins play a key role in regulating cellular homeostasis) sustain genome integrity and promote DNA repair. Like a car cannot drive without fuel, sirtuins’ activation requires NAD+.
  • Results from animal studies showed that raising NAD+ levels in the body activates sirtuins and increases the lifespans of yeast, worms, and mice.
  • Although animal studies showed promising results in anti-aging properties, scientists are still studying how these results can translate to humans [4].

Metabolic Disorders

  • NAD+ is one of the keys to maintaining healthy mitochondrial functions and steady energy output. Aging and a high-fat diet reduce the level of NAD+ in the body.
  • Studies have shown that taking NAD+ boosters can alleviate diet-associated and age-associated weight gain in mice and improve their exercise capacity, even in aged mice.
  • Other studies even reversed the diabetes effect in female mice, showing new strategies to fight metabolic disorders, such as obesity [5].

Heart Function

  • Boosting NAD+ levels protects the heart and improves cardiac functions. High blood pressure can cause an enlarged heart and blocked arteries that lead to strokes.
  • In mice, NAD+ boosters have replenished NAD+ levels in the heart and prevented injuries to the heart caused by a lack of blood flow.
  • Other studies have shown that NAD+ boosters can protect mice from abnormal heart enlargement [6].


  • In mice with Alzheimer’s, raising the NAD+ level can decrease protein build-up that disrupts cell communication in the brain to increase cognitive function.
  • Boosting NAD+ levels also protects brain cells from dying when there’s insufficient blood flow to the brain.
  • Many studies in animal models present new prospects of helping the brain age healthily, defending against neurodegeneration, and improving memory [7].

Immune System

  • As adults get older, the immune system declines, people get ill more easily, and it becomes harder for people to bounce back from illnesses such as the seasonal flu, or even COVID-19.
  • Recent studies have suggested that NAD+ levels play an important role in regulating inflammation and cell survival during the immune response and aging [8].
  • The study underscored the therapeutic potential of NAD+ for immune dysfunction.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H) is used as a supplement as well [9].

NADH is used for improving mental clarity, alertness, concentration, and memory, as well as for treating Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Because of its role in energy production, NADH is also used for improving athletic performance and treating chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Unfortunately, there isn’t enough evidence to know whether the supplementation works. 

Learn more about Nitrates and Nitrites in this full episode. Click here 👇👇


0:00 Intro
0:40 – Topic introduction
2:15 – Nitrates and Nitrites are more complex
2:55 – Differences Between Nitrates and Nitrites
5:25 – Effects of nitrates and nitrites on animals
6:55 – Celery Juice as a preservative
8:20 – NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide)
10:00 – NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
11:20 – How NAD works
12:12 – NAD and Aging
14:15 – NAD and Metabolic Disorders
16:40 – NAD and Heart Function
18:00 – Beneficial to those in the older spectrum
18:48 – NAD plus increases cognitive ability
21:14 – NAD plus and Immune System function
22:50 – Athletes and NAD plus
24:00 – Figure out what works for you
24:15 – Closing the episode


The Gut Microbiome

The Gut Microbiome

The Gut Microbiome

In this episode, we are going to talk about the importance of the gut biome. There is current research going on about our gut health, specifically what grows in our gut.

For many years we have overlooked the importance of our gut microbiome and the negative effects of dysbiosis.

The Gut-brain Connection

The majority of our immune system is housed in our gut, so it makes sense to look at the place that is introduced to foreign objects because it is responsible for the breakdown of food and anything else that enters the mouth.

Our gut is what keeps us alive. The microorganisms living in you are the ones that are keeping you alive and functioning. 

The brain has a direct effect on the stomach and intestines. For example, the very thought of eating can release the stomach’s juices before food gets there. This connection goes both ways.

A troubled intestine can send signals to the brain, just as a troubled brain can send signals to the gut.

Therefore, a person’s stomach or intestinal distress can be the cause or the product of anxiety, stress, or depression. That’s because the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) system are intimately connected.

Given how closely the gut and brain interact, it becomes easier to understand why you might feel nauseated before giving a presentation or feel intestinal pain during times of stress.

That doesn’t mean, however, that functional gastrointestinal conditions are imagined or “all in your head.”

Psychology combines with physical factors to cause pain and other bowel symptoms. Psychosocial factors influence the actual physiology of the gut biome, as well as symptoms.

In other words, stress (or depression or other psychological factors) can affect movement and contractions of the GI tract [1].

What is the Gut Microbiome

We, humans, consist of 100 trillion microbes. Microbes outnumber our human cells 10 to 1. The majority of those microbes live in our gut.

The microbiome consists of the genetic material from all the microbes – bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses – that live on and inside the body. “The number of genes in all the microbes in a person’s microbiome is 200 times the number of genes in the human genome [2]

The microbiome may weigh as much as five pounds.” The bacteria in the gut:

  • Digest our food
  • regulate our immune system
  • protect against other disease-causing organisms
  • help make vitamins like vitamin B, vitamin B12, thiamine, riboflavin, and Vitamin K. 
  • “The microbiome was not generally recognized to exist until the late 1990s.”

Why is the Gut Microbiome Important

The microbiome is essential for human development, immunity, and nutrition. The bacteria living in and on us are not invaders but beneficial colonizers.

Autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia are associated with dysfunction in the microbiome.

Disease-causing microbes accumulate over time, changing gene activity and metabolic processes and resulting in an abnormal immune response against substances and tissues normally present in the body.

Autoimmune diseases appear to be passed in families not by DNA inheritance but by inheriting the family’s microbiome. 

Things You Didn’t Know About Your Gut

The gut is one of the most underrated parts of our body. And sometimes, we forget that it is even there. However, you will be surprised to know that the gut has one of the most important jobs in the body. Here are some facts you need to know about it [3].

  1. Your genes are outnumbered.
    • The genes found in your gut microbiome outnumber your human genes from 150 to 1.2. When scientists discovered that human DNA was  99.9% the same, human to human, they were a little perplexed.
    • The dynamic gut microbiome is potentially capable of contributing to these differences. Your gut microbiome can influence gene expression and biological functions, making humans wonderfully unique.
  2. The microbiome has more biodiversity than a rainforest. 
    • When we imagine a vibrant ecosystem with many different species of plants and animals, we usually think of the Amazon rainforest. But the Amazon pales in comparison to your gut microbiota.
  3. The “bad guys” aren’t all bad. 
    • We were too quick to label certain bacteria like E. coli “bad guys.” Only to realize that we actually need them within our gut.  E. coli helps stimulate the regeneration of the gut lining, making the digestive tract healthier.
  4. Your gut microbiome is like your second brain.
    • The gut microbiome is called your second brain because it affects your mood, happiness, and motivation and even can contribute to suboptimal neurological performance later in life. Your microbes actually produce about 90% of serotonin or your “happiness neurotransmitter.”
    • Along with what’s called the vagus nerve, the bacteria in your gut are in constant communication with your brain and influence your behavior. It might sound hopeless knowing your gut is in control of your mind and behavior. The good news is you have a lot of influence over them through what you eat.
  5. Antibiotics create a warzone. 
    • Antibiotics are like a bomb to your microbiota and can quickly change its composition, potentially leading to dysbiosis (an imbalance in the gut microorganisms). This can have both short and long-term effects on your health since the microbiome is critical in many physiological processes, including the regulation of metabolism and immunity. 
  6. Can predict if you’re overweight or lean. 
    • Looking at the composition of your gut microbiome, researchers can tell with 90% accuracy whether you’re overweight or lean. This has fascinating implications because we know that the microbiome is essential to metabolism through harvesting and storing energy.
    • Though the connection hasn’t yet been made about whether or not certain microbes can actually make you fat, there is an interesting correlation between metabolic health and certain bacteria.
  7. It’s shrinking.
    • As a whole, the Western world is losing diversity in its gut microbiome. Things like antibiotic use, spending all of our time indoors, and moving into the cities have contributed to this loss in biodiversity.

How The Microbiota Benefit The Body

Microbiota stimulates the immune system, breaks down potentially toxic food compounds, and synthesizes certain vitamins and amino acids. Fast-digest carbohydrates such as sugar and lactose are absorbed quickly in the small intestine. Foods with higher fiber travel down to the large intestine. 

These metabolites are: 

  • Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)
  • Trimethyl Amines
  • Amino acid metabolites
  • Vitamins

The microbiota in the large intestine help breaks down these compounds with their digestive enzymes. The fermentation of indigestible fibers and resistant starches causes the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that the body can use as a nutrient source.

It also plays an important role in muscle function and possibly the prevention of chronic diseases, including certain cancers and bowel disorders. SCFAs also is speculated to play a key role in neuro-Immuno endocrine regulation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. 

Clinical studies have shown that SCFA may be useful in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

How Bacteria in Your Gut Interact with the Mind and Body by the AHA

Dr. Kirsten Tillisch, professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, led a study in 2013 that was the first to show eating a bacteria-friendly, or probiotic, food – in this case, yogurt – affected regions in the brain associated with the processing of emotion and sensation in healthy women with no psychiatric symptoms.

Four years later, her team linked specific gut bacterial profiles to brain differences in those regions.

Those bacteria interact with the brain and other organs in three ways. First, the gut and brain communicate by molecules carried in the blood, and microbes influence those chemical messages.

Microbes also interact with the gut’s special nervous system, called the enteric nervous system. It has a direct, two-way connection with the brain via the central nervous system.

Finally, the immune system of the gut wall and the body’s other immune components respond to gut microbes, affecting the brain and organs.

A Good Example

Here’s one example of how it all ties together. You might have heard of serotonin and dopamine, neurotransmitter molecules that steer mood and behavior in brain circuits.

These molecules also are found in the gut. In fact, Stevens said, most of the body’s serotonin comes from the gut wall.

Gut bacteria also use them to signal the gut’s nervous system and its direct link to the brain. The bacterial messages also can prompt responses from the body’s immune system.

Summed up: “Your gut, your brain, and your immune system interact,” Stevens said. “The triangulation of those things controls much of your other physiology, whether its blood pressure, metabolism or mood.” [4]

Short-chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)

The SCFAs acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main metabolites produced in the colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch.

The hypothesis is supported by studies in animals and humans showing that gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in behavioral and neurologic pathologies, such as depression, Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

Brain-to-gut signaling can directly affect the microbiota, either via the immune system or gut functions such as motility, the release of neurotransmitters, and intestinal immune tone. Bidirectional gut-brain neural relays control satiety signaling and appetite regulation. 

There is growing evidence that shows alterations in the maternal microbiome during pregnancy, such as the use of antibiotics or probiotic variations in diet, immune activation, and exposure to stress, can modulate the microbiome, neurodevelopment, and behavior of offspring in both rodents and humans.

It is now widely known that peripheral insults that cause a systemic inflammatory response might affect ongoing inflammation in the CNS mainly by microglial activation (neurotransmitter inflammation), production of inflammatory molecules, as well as recruitment of immune cells into the brain.

This is why shaping cerebral inflammation that may seriously affect neuronal function.

Inflammation also affects gut pathologies with increased permeability of the intestine barrier due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins.

This opens the pathway to translocations of bacterial products, which will cause the immune system to fight off pathogens, causing the production of cytokines and impacting the blood-brain barrier [5].

Microbiota and Neurodegenerative Diseases 

Many studies talk about how microbiota may contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms include a deterioration in memory, thinking, behavior, and the ability to perform daily activities. 

A commonality amongst dementia is chronic neuroinflammation, involving overactivation and dysregulation of microglia, immune macrophage cells of the brain. 

What is the Function of the Microglial Cells?

Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages that are found in the central nervous system (CNS). They remove damaged neurons and infections and are important for maintaining the health of the CNS.

When Microglial cells are activated, their morphology changes secondary to increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokine. The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can lead to neuronal cell death, loss of the Blood-brain barrier (BBB), and brain damage.

Consistent findings are supporting the role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation in this mouse model. Antibiotic administration also limits β-amyloid pathology and neuroinflammation.

The Blood-brain Barrier (BBB)

The BBB is now considered to be part of a neurovascular unit comprising brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and extracellular matrix, which together contribute to regulating BBB stability and function [6].

The imbalance in the Neurovascular unit starts with disease states from trauma or infections which causes a disruption of the endothelial tight junction leading to the translocation of blood-borne immune cells.

It also results in inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, and microbes with their products that activate microglia, resulting in inflammation and, ultimately cell dysfunction and death. 

Gut Microbiota Influencing brain health

The gut microbiota transforms dietary components, including macro-and micronutrients, fibers, and polyphenols, into a range of metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, trimethylamines, amino acid derivatives, and vitamins [7].

These microbial-derived metabolites and dietary components have essential metabolic and signaling functions which can modulate host homeostasis, including BBB integrity and brain function.

Future Areas of interest

Imagine manipulating microbes to resist disease and respond better to treatments. We are at the beginning of differentiating in the microbiome between healthy individuals and those with chronic diseases such as diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, cancers, and cardiovascular disease.

Viome Test

In the name of science, we are putting our guts to the test. We are going to do Viome’s Health and Gut Intelligence Tests.

Viome offers information relating to Health and food insights, supplement, prebiotic, & probiotic recommendations to support:

  • Gut Microbiome Health
  • Cellular Health
  • Mitochondrial Health
  • Immune System Health
  • Stress Response Health
  • Biological Age

It can give you a potential answer to these questions:

  • Does your body say you are younger or older than the age on your birth certificate?
  • Is your immune system prepared for invading bacteria or viruses?
  • How is your gut microbiome impacting your glycemic response?
  • Are you eating more protein than your body can handle?
  • Do your cells receive enough energy to function efficiently in order to prevent accelerated aging?
  • Are your cells performing their functions efficiently or undergoing stress due to oxidative stress, inflammation, or environmental toxins?

To watch the full episode and learn more about the gut biome, click here


00:00 – Intro
00:35 – Looking into the Guy Microbiome
02:30 – The gut has a direct effect on our brain
03:16 – The digestive system
04:00 – The gut microbe produces vitamins
05:22 – Fun Fact: You have more gut microbe than all faunas and floras combined on earth
06:05 – Using antibiotics creates a warzone in your gut
08:00 – Western civilization
09:25 – Gut flora shows what’s lacking
11:28 – Your gut, your responsibility
12:03 – The benefits
13:15 – The gut is overlooked
15:51 – The gut plays a role in depression, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease
17:06 – Leaky Gut
20:49 – The influence of gut microbe on your body
22:45 – Be Well: Feeding Your Gut Right
25:08 – Different gut reaction
26:00 – In the name of Science
27:17 – The Gut Health Matters
30:00 – Thanks, guys!